Friday, May 22, 2020

The Effect of Terrorism Because of Technology - 1366 Words

Terrorism is the use of violence, usually against â€Å"non-combatants† , in order to try and achieve political change. Terrorism has been extremely influential in recent decades, stemming from the post World War Two era by exploiting the new advances in the changing world arena, which has triggered states to amend their political agendas to try and focus more attention on the matter of terrorism. Using the dimensions of the world arena and how these have evolved, it is clear that terrorism reflects the changes that have been made, with terrorist groups facilitating them to the best of their ability. If the boundaries of terrorist attacks are considered it is clear that since World War Two new technology has progressively developed, particularly during the most recent decades. This has meant that boundaries have become easier to cross, giving terrorists a platform to protest and take action. A key example of this led to the invasion in Iraq in 2003 by the Western forces when the UK Ministry of Defence was quoted as stating, â€Å"’Iraq has served to radicalise an already disillusioned youth and al-Qaeda has given them the will, intent, purpose and ideology to act.’† In addition to this, looking at the occurrence of terrorist attacks the Western – Eastern divide becomes apparent with the majority of attacks being carried out against Western Powers; The primary example of this is the attack on the United States of America on September 11th 2001. This, paired with the events in LondonShow MoreRelatedCyber Terrorism And Threats Of Information System1688 W ords   |  7 PagesCyber-Terrorism and Threats to Information System National security has been top priority of the United States after World War II. This is due to the fact that the United States before this time was relatively an isolationist country with no influence in the world. As a result national security was not important, this changed post World War II. The United States found themselves among the top, overnight they went from being new and not listened to, to becoming one of the major players in the worldRead MoreInternational Management 7e (Deresky) - Ch.1 : Discussion and Analytical Questions1585 Words   |  7 Pagesand the effect they have or might have on a foreign subsidiary. What are micro political risk events? Give some examples and explain how they affect international business. Answer: An event that affects all foreign firms doing business in a country or region is called a macro political risk event. In many regions, terrorism poses a severe and random political risk to company personnel and assets and can obviously interrupt the conduct of business. The increasing incidence of terrorism around theRead MoreAmericas Effects On Homeland Security1698 Words   |  7 PagesAmericas’ Effects Homeland security was founded under the Bush administration in 2003 due the attacks of September 11 was forever stay in the mind of the American public. It was a tragic event that scared the nation. The 9-11 attacks claimed 2,996 lives that included 19 hijackers. Neria, DiGrande, Adams, (2011) reported that an extensive amount of the post-9/11 research revealed that in the subsequent 10 years, individuals with greater contact to 9/11 had substantially higher PTSD issues. The PTSDRead MoreNon-Conventional Terrorism963 Words   |  4 PagesNon-conventional terrorism Introduction Terrorism refers to the use of force or threat in order to create fear to the innocent citizens of a country, and the government. It is designed so as to bring some form of political change by targeting the innocent people ADDIN EN.CITE Deutch19971295(Deutch, 1997)1295129517Deutch, JohnTerrorismForeign PolicyForeign Policy10-221081997Washingtonpost.Newsweek Interactive, LLC00157228 HYPERLINK l _ENREF_5 o Deutch, 1997Read MoreTerrorism : Terrorism And Terrorism1035 Words   |  5 PagesOver the past Century, terrorism has advanced from random killings to enormous plans for terrorist groups. To understand terrorism you must first define it. Terrorism as we all know it is hard to define and understand, and has many different definitions as it is used widely. The word terrorism stems from the word terror, which means to instill fear in. People become terrorists when they take the actions towards instilling fear and terror upon people to prove a certai n point or agenda. Some terroristsRead MoreEffective Use of Technology by Terrorists Essay1671 Words   |  7 Pagesdoing these acts of terrorism, it can cause the market to change or even have a more clear effect on your life like the death of a loved one, or one of your loved ones being injured. With all of that being said, there is one important thing that helps them accomplish these goals. That one important thing is technology. Technology all around the world is used for good and helps us accomplish tasks we could not do without technology. But there is also the downside to technology. The downside is thatRead MoreEssay on Terrorism: Its Forms and Effects1641 Words   |  7 Pagesrecent years, terrorism has been on the rise. The most famous attack in recent years was that of the destruction of the twin towers in 2001. It caused a massive public outcry at the atrocity of the actions. What most people dont realize, however is that the people who make these attacks, called terr orists, have a goal in mind. People also dont realize that there are many types of terrorism, and are not just limited to the attacker flying planes into famous buildings. The types of terrorism are quiteRead MoreIntroduction. In 1945, The United States Of America Utilized1655 Words   |  7 Pagesweaponizing modern technologies for Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs). Since the bombing of Japan during World War I, the use of bombs as the main means of terrorism has been the corner-stone in anti-terrorism preparedness and response. However, the use of commercial jetliners in the September 11th attacks in the United States ushered in an era of counter-terrorism where conventional WMDs were not the only resources that could be utilized in an attack. The use of modern technology for weapons of massRead MoreLiving With Terrorism Essay1027 Words   |  5 Pages Terrorism has been in existence for ages, and is still relatively difficult to define. Though the word terror is clear, when it becomes applied to acts, or actors, it becomes confusing. A definition that can be retrieved from Google is â€Å"the use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims†. This gives a vague idea of what terrorism truly is. A more in-depth definition of terrorism would include characteristics such as, a crime of holy duty, a political tactic or strategy, an inexcusableRead MoreThe Creation Of The Dhs1406 Words   |  6 Pagesis liable for establishing the safety and defense of the U.S. from terrorism and natural disasters. In the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks on America by terrorists, Department of Homeland Security’s main concern has been on federal measures to prevent terrorism attacks and handle other crisis situations. When the Department of Homeland Security was created it had four goals: to diminish America’ s vulnerability to terrorism by securing the borders, minimizing the damage and speed the recovery

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The Prevention And Public Health - 852 Words

It was not easy gathering information for this assignment. All the attempts and efforts to contact my state nursing lobbyists, both the state and the federal representatives of Georgia were abortive. This assignment was competed through internet search of representative members’ website. What is the position of Georgia state legislators on health care issues and nursing specifically? I live in Georgia, I am in the 7th congressional district. Our representative is Rob Woodall. He has been representing the 7th congressional district since 2011. Some of the health policy issues he voted on includes the banning of federal health coverage that includes abortion. Robert Woodall is a strong pro-life supporter his argument was that abortion is harmful to women and it takes the lives of innocent children. He voted for Medicare spending cuts, and in October 2011, he voted for legislation to control how private insurance companies that are in public insurance exchange may offer abortion coverage. Also he voted to repeal the patient protection and affordable Act in January 2011. On repealing the â€Å"prevention and public health â€Å"fund his argument was that the HHH secretary spends this fund without congressional approval. He believed that eliminating this fund will not affect any specific program rather it will repossess the control of how the federal tax money is s pent. (Rob Woodall, 2015) What are the position of Georgia federal legislators on health care issues and nursing,Show MoreRelatedThe Benefits Of The Prevention And Public Health Fund1710 Words   |  7 PagesPublic Health The Prevention and Public Health Fund was formed to improve health care quality and improve the investment in public health by the Affordable Care Act. Funding is distributed to many great Agencies to support research and programs to improve health care in our communities. A few agencies receiving funding that caught my eye were the Alzheimer’s disease Prevention Education and Outreach, Fall Prevention, and Hospitals Promoting Breastfeeding. Taking a deeper look at these programsRead MoreThe Role Of Public Health And Disease Prevention1700 Words   |  7 Pages†¢ Describe the roles of public health and disease prevention in helping specific vulnerable populations within the selected country, and compare those to the USA’s. Be sure to include the terms listed in Student Learning Outcome #3 (above) as you write this section. (25 pts IV. Healthcare Costs A. Healthcare costs in Germany 1. Where does the money for healthcare go? (money out) a. Hospitals b. Healthcare workers Read MoreSuicide Prevention : A Major Public Health Priority923 Words   |  4 PagesFoundation for Suicide Prevention, 2017). In the past few years, there has been a rise in suicide prevention programs. Programs are being implemented into schools and universities and offered at community centers as well. Suicide prevention is a major public health priority, as recognized by the Prioritized Research Agenda for Suicide Prevention, the Revised National Strategy for Suicide Prevention, the formation in 2010 of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention (Godoy Garraza L WalrathRead MoreToronto Public Health And Tb Program Prevention Essay1558 Words   |  7 Pages Toronto Public Health and TB Program Prevention, Management and Treatment Thi Thanh Tuyen (Rosa) Pham NUR 102 Luella Orr October 26, 2016 Toronto Public Health and TB Program Prevention, Management and Treatment Tuberculosis (TB), which infects one-third of the world population, is a disease with one of the highest mortality rates in the world (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016a). It is reported that there is an approximately low TB occurrence in nations that haveRead MorePrevention Of Chronic Disease And Improving Public Health996 Words   |  4 Pageslegislation since Medicare and Medicaid passed in 1965.1 This health care reform is intended to expand access to quality and affordable care for all Americans. It is also intended to address the role of public programs, efficiency of health care and prevention of chronic diseases and improving public health to name a few. Recognizing that the prevention of chronic disease and promoting population health is the key to controlling health care expenditure, the inclusion of pain management is a positiveRead MorePublic Health Initiatives For Preventing Heart Disease And Stroke Prevention758 Words   |  4 PagesHealth Care Currently the support for public health initiatives to prevent heart disease and stroke are low, constituting to less than 3% of the total budget of state public health agencies. Despite considerable public health advances in previous years, failing to stop and reverse the menace has been very costly. The number of fatalities and health care expenses only continue to escalate day by day. Out of the ten essential public health services, I recommend three. First, inform, educate and empowerRead MoreCenter for Disease Control Essay example1421 Words   |  6 PagesThere are many public sector and not for profit health agencies within the United States health care system. There are health care agencies that are run by the government, Quasi-government and voluntary. The agencies that are Quasi-government are supported by the government but managed privately and there are voluntary health agencies that can be run by private or non-profit agencies, and there are also government run agencie s. Government agencies are run by the government and funded through taxesRead MoreWebsite Review and Summary Paper846 Words   |  4 Pagespeople have relied on their health care providers for medical treatments. Now a day, people have the opportunity to research about any illness, medical concern, medical diagnosis and any type of disease in the Internet. There are many health care organizations that offer people around the world with information about drugs, illnesses, diseases, outbreaks, treatments, preventions and the list goes endless. In this paper the writer will review and summarize governmental health agency websites. TheRead MorePublic Health and Health Care. Hcs 535 Final Essay1701 Words   |  7 Pages Public Health and Health Care Bobbie Jean Taylor, II Concepts of Population Health/HCS 535 March 5, 2012 Beth Hale, PhD. Public Health and Health Care â€Å"For over 60 years, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been dedicated to protecting health and promoting quality of life through the prevention and control of disease, injury, and disability,† (CDC, 2012, p. 1). The organization has a focus of decreasing the health and economic disadvantages of the principal reasons of demiseRead MoreHistory of Public Health Essay938 Words   |  4 PagesThe History of Public Health and the Role of the Community/Public Health Nurse Walden University NURS 4010 Section 04, Family, Community, and Population-Based Care 10 / 21 / 2012 The History of Public Health and the Role of the Community/Public Health Nurse Overview Public health, a population-centered nursing had been in existence since the late 1880s under the guise of different names. The focus of public health nursing was on sanitation, communicable disease

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Body Shop Case Analysis Free Essays

1. For all the line items that are calculated as a percentage of sales, we used an average for the last three years as our base case assumptions. Our observations led us to use this average because the percentages were fairly consistent over the last three years. We will write a custom essay sample on Body Shop Case Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now Since the company was not operating at full production capacity we concluded that the company could continue growing without incurring an increase in fixed costs. The dividends were unchanged over the period of observation. Since taxes are not calculated as a percentage of sales but rather as a percentage of EBIT, taxes payable remained unchanged. 2. According to our calculations The Body Shop will need additional funding of ? 16. 97, ? 20. 55, and ? 24. 60 in 2002, 2003 2004 respectively for a total of ? 62. 12. These numbers were derived by developing trial pro-forma balance sheets and finding the difference between our assets and liabilities and equity. This calculation equals the plug, which told us how much additional funding was needed. After forecasting these numbers we were able to conclude that The Body Shop will need the aforementioned funding. 3. Our first important factor that needed to be taking into consideration is that the percentage of sales for 2002 will be an average of the previous three years. The next important factor, we believe, is that for 2003 and 2004 the sales percentages will remain unchanged. Lastly, fixed assets will remain the same. With these assumptions in mind, any change up or down will result in a change in the additional financing needed. The assumptions are key for forecasting future financial data. Without these assumptions we would not be able to accurately predict future values. 4. A general manager like Roddick would value these findings because it allows her to prepare for future additional financing. Having this foresight will allow her to begin to plan for this newly acquired debt. These findings will give Roddick two options, she could either issue more equity, or she can take on additional debt. Our analysis concludes that Roddick should take on new debt totaling ? 16. 97 million for the upcoming fiscal year. How to cite Body Shop Case Analysis, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Rabindranath Tagore an Educator with Difference Essay Example

Rabindranath Tagore an Educator with Difference Essay Tagore modernised Bengali art by spurning rigid classical forms. His novels, stories, songs, dance-dramas, and essays spoke to political and personal topics. Gitanjali (Song Offerings), Gora (Fair-Faced), and Ghare-Baire (The Home and the World) are his best-known works, and his verse, short stories, and novels were acclaimed for their lyricism, colloquialism, naturalism, and contemplation. Tagore was perhaps the only litterateur who penned anthems of two countries Jana Gana Mana, the Indian national anthem and Amar Shonar Bangla, the Bangladeshi national anthem.The youngest of thirteen surviving children, Tagore was born in the Jorasanko mansion in Kolkata of parents Debendranath Tagore (1817–1905) and Sarada Devi (1830–1875). Tagore family patriarchs were the Brahmo founding fathers of the Adi Dharm faith. He was mostly raised by servants, as his mother had died in his early childhood; his father travelled extensively. Tagore largely declined classroom schooling, pre ferring to roam the mansion or nearby idylls: Bolpur, Panihati, and others.Upon his upanayan initiation at age eleven, Tagore left Calcutta on 14 February 1873 to tour India with his father for several months. They visited his fathers Santiniketan estate and stopped in Amritsar before reaching the Himalayan hill station of Dalhousie. There, young Rabi read biographies and was home-educated in history, astronomy, modern science, and Sanskrit, and examined the poetry of Kalidasa. He completed major works in 1877, one a long poem of the Maithili style pioneered by Vidyapati. Published pseudonymously, experts accepted them as the lost works of Bhanusi? a, a newly discovered 17th-century Vai ava poet. He wrote Bhikharini (1877; The Beggar Woman—the Bengali languages first short story) and Sandhya Sangit (1882)—including the famous poem Nirjharer Swapnabhanga (The Rousing of the Waterfall). A prospective barrister, Tagore enrolled at a public school in Brighton, East Sussex, England in 1878. He read law at University College London, but left school to explore Shakespeare and more: Religio Medici, Coriolanus, and Antony and Cleopatra; he returned degreeless to Bengal in 1880.On 9 December 1883 he married Mrinalini Devi (born Bhabatarini, 1873–1902); they had five children, two of whom died before reaching adulthood. In 1890, Tagore began managing his familys vast estates in Shilaidaha, a region now in Bangladesh; he was joined by his wife and children in 1898. In 1890, Tagore released his Manasi poems, among his best-known work. As Zamindar Babu, Tagore criss-crossed the holdings while living out of the familys luxurious barge, the Padma, to collect (mostly token) rents and bless villagers, who held feasts in his honour.These years—1891–1895: Tagores Sadhana period, after one of Tagore’s magazines—were his most fecund. During this period, more than half the stories of the three-volume and eighty-four-story Galpaguchchh a were written. With irony and gravity, they depicted a wide range of Bengali lifestyles, particularly village life. SHANTINIKETAN In 1901, Tagore left Shilaidaha and moved to Shantiniketan to found an ashram which grew to include a marble-floored prayer hall (The Mandir), an experimental school, groves of trees, gardens, and a library. There, Tagores wife and two of his children died.His father died on 19 January 1905. He received monthly payments as part of his inheritance and additional income from the Maharaja of Tripura, sales of his familys jewellery, his seaside bungalow in Puri, and mediocre royalties (2,000) from his works. By now, his work was gaining him a large following among Bengali and foreign readers alike, and he published such works as Naivedya (1901) and Kheya (1906) while translating his poems into free verse. On 14 November 1913, Tagore learned that he had won the 1913 Nobel Prize in Literature, becoming the first Asian Nobel laureate.The Swedish Academy appreci ated the idealistic and—for Western readers—accessible nature of a small body of his translated material, including the 1912 Gitanjali: Song Offerings. In 1915, Tagore was knighted by the British Crown. He later returned his knighthood in protest of the massacre of unarmed Indians in 1919 at Jallianwala Bagh. In 1921, Tagore and agricultural economist Leonard Elmhirst set up the Institute for Rural Reconstruction, later renamed Shriniketan—Abode of Welfare—in Surul, a village near the ashram at Santiniketan.Through it, Tagore bypassed Gandhis symbolic Swaraj protests, which he despised. He sought aid from donors, officials, and scholars worldwide to free villagefrom the shackles of helplessness and ignorance by vitalis knowledge. In the early 1930s, he targeted Indias abnormal caste consciousness and untouchability. Lecturing against these, he penned untouchable heroes for his poems and dramas and campaigned—successfully—to open Guruvayoor T emple to Dalits. MUSIC AND ART Tagore composed roughly 2,230 songs and was a prolific painter. His songs comprise Rabindra Sangeet ( Tagore Song), an integral part of Bengali culture. Tagores music is inseparable from his literature, most of which—poems or parts of novels, stories, or plays alike—became lyrics for his songs. Influenced by the thumri style of Hindustani music, they ran the entire gamut of human emotion, ranging from his early dirge-like Brahmo devotional hymns to quasi-erotic compositions. They emulated the tonal color of classical ragas to varying extents. Though at times his songs mimicked a given ragas melody and rhythm faithfully, he also blended elements of different ragas to create innovative works.POETRY Tagores poetry—which varied in style from classical formalism to the comic, visionary, and ecstatic—proceeds from a lineage established by 15th- and 16th-century Vaishnava poets. Tagore was awed by the mysticism of the rishi-author s who—including Vyasa—wrote the Upanishads, the Bhakti-Sufi mystic Kabir, and Ramprasad Sen. Yet Tagores poetry became most innovative and mature after his exposure to rural Bengals folk music, which included Baul ballads—especially those of bard Lalon. These—rediscovered and popularised by Tagore—resemble 19th-century Kartabhaja hymns that emphasize nward divinity and rebellion against religious and social orthodoxy. During his Shilaidaha years, his poems took on a lyrical quality, speaking via the maner manus (the Bauls man within the heart) or meditating upon the jivan devata (living God within). This figure thus sought connection with divinity through appeal to nature and the emotional interplay of human drama. Tagore used such techniques in his Bhanusi? ha poems (which chronicle the romance between Radha and Krishna), which he repeatedly revised over the course of seventy yearsPOLITICAL VIEWS Tagores political thought was complex. He opposed i mperialism and supported Indian nationalists. His views have their first poetic release in Manast, mostly composed in his twenties. Evidence produced during the Hindu-German Conspiracy trial and later accounts affirm his awareness of the Ghadarite conspiracy, and stated that he sought the support of Japanese Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake and former Premier Okuma Shigenobu. Yet he lampooned the Swadeshi movement, denouncing it in The Cult of the Charka, an acrid 1925 essay.He emphasized self-help and intellectual uplift of the masses as an alternative, stating that British imperialism was a political symptom of our social disease, urging Indians to accept that there can be no question of blind revolution, but of steady and purposeful education. IMPACT Tagores relevance can be gauged by festivals honouring him: Kabipranam, Tagores birth anniversary; the annual Tagore Festival held in Urbana, Illinois, in the United States; Rabindra Path Parikrama walking pilgrimages from Calcutta t o Shantiniketan; ceremonial recitals of Tagores poetry held on important anniversaries; and others.This legacy is most palpable in Bengali culture, ranging from language and arts to history and politics. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen saw Tagore as a towering figure, being a deeply relevant and many-sided contemporary thinker. Tagores Bengali-language writings—the 1939 Rabindra Rachanavali—is also canonised as one of Bengals greatest cultural treasures. Tagore himself was proclaimed the greatest poet India has produced. Tagore was famed throughout much of Europe, North America, and East Asia.He co-founded Dartington Hall School, a progressive coeducational institution; in Japan, he influenced such figures as Nobel laureate Yasunari Kawabata. Tagores works were widely translated into English, Dutch, German, Spanish, and other European languages by Czech indologist Vincenc Lesny, French Nobel laureate Andre Gide, Russian poet Anna Akhmatova,[118] former Turkish Prime Ministe r Bulent Ecevit,[119] and others. In the United States, Tagores lecturing circuits, particularly those in 1916–1917, were widely attended and acclaimed.Yet, several controversiesinvolving Tagore resulted in a decline in his popularity in Japan and North America after the late 1920s, concluding with his near total eclipse outside of Bengal. Via translations, Tagore influenced Hispanic literature: Chileans Pablo Neruda and Gabriela Mistral, Mexican writer Octavio Paz, and Spaniards Jose Ortega y Gasset, Zenobia Camprubi, and Juan Ramon Jimenez. Between 1914 and 1922, the Jimenez-Camprubi spouses translated twenty-two of Tagores books from English into Spanish and extensively revised and adapted such works as Tagores The Crescent Moon.In this time, Jimenez developed naked poetry (Spanish:  «poesia desnuda »), a landmark innovation. Ortega y Gasset wrote that Tagores wide appeal [may stem from the fact that] he speaks of longings for perfection that we all have Tagore awaken s a dormant sense of childish wonder, and he saturates the air with all kinds of enchanting promises for the reader, who pays little attention to the deeper import of Oriental mysticism. Tagores works circulated in free editions around 1920 alongside those of Dante Alighieri, Miguel de Cervantes, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Plato, and Leo Tolstoy.Tagore was deemed overrated by some Westerners. Graham Greene doubted that anyone but Mr. Yeats can still take his poems very seriously. [120] Modern remnants of a past Latin American reverence of Tagore were discovered, for example, by an astonished Salman Rushdie during a trip to Nicaragua Advantages of solar water heating systems 1. With the rising cost of energy and the prospect of shortages in the future, the idea of harnessing the power of the sun as a renewable energy source is gaining in popularity around the world. According to Solar Direct, there are more than 300,000 solar water heating units installed in the U.S. , and the numb er is growing as people realize the many advantages of solar heating. Systems 2. There are two types of solar water heating systemspassive and active. Passive, as the name implies, involves no moving parts. The simplest passive system consists of a dark-colored water tank exposed to sunlight. Thermosyphon passive heaters work on the principle of convection, in which hot water rises and cold water sinks within the tank in a continual process as long as there is sunlight available. Active systems employ pumps to move water from the collector to the water tank. Available Energy 3.One of the biggest advantages of solar energy is that it is readily available to everyone, cutting out the necessity of the middle-man energy provider. According to one Arizona utility company, just a portion of the roof of a typical house receives more energy than is needed to heat water for its occupants for more than a year. There are systems designed to work in any climate. Cost Effective 4. Initial costs to install a solar water heating system range from $2,500 to $5,000 for an active system, which will produce between 80 to 100 gallons of hot water per day, to as little as $1,000 to $2,000 for a passive system with lower capacity.Since solar water heating systems save more than 50 percent on hot water energy bills, most homeowners recoup these expenses within 10 years. Homeowners also receive federal and state tax credits for installing solar power systems. Other Advantages 5. Using solar energy has a positive impact on the environment by reducing the use of nonrenewable energy sources to heat water, such as gas, coal, oil or nuclear power. Solar energy is safe, efficient, reliable and non-polluting.The consumer has direct control over the system, and unlike conventional water heaters, hot water is available even during a power outage. Any time you use solar energy to offset the amount of fossil fuels that are burned, you contribute to everyones health and welfare. Operating one so lar water heater instead of an electric water heater saves the equivalent of nine barrels of oil every year and reduces carbon dioxide emissions (a greenhouse gas) by 1600 pounds and sulfur dioxide (contributes to acid rain) emissions by 12 pounds.The best savings in hot water come from no cost or low cost options. The solar disinfection method is good for various reasons: chlorination costs money for tablets, filtration costs money for filters, and boiling is very laborious (and in some areas of developing countries the collection of wood is not allowed for environmental reasons). A plastic bottle is a sustainable resource with an insignificant cost. Disadvantages The initial cost is the main disadvantage of installing a solar hot water systems, largely because of the high cost of the supplies.The efficiency of the system also relies on the location of the sun, although this problem can be overcome with the installation of certain components. The production of solar hot water is in fluenced by the presence of clouds or pollution in the air. Similarly, no solar hot water will be produced during night time although a backup system will solve this problem. In the case of SODIS if not left in strong sun for the proper length of time (due to carelessness, impatience or urgent thirst) the water may not be safe to drink and could cause illness.There is also concern over whether plastic drinking containers can leach chemicals or toxic components into water, a process possibly accelerated by heat. A major limitation of solar heating is that only small volumes (around 10 litres) of water can be exposed conveniently at one time per water container and solar reflector. Another important limitation is availability of sunlight, which varies greatly with season, daily weather (meteorological) conditions and geographic location. A third potential limitation of solar heating to disinfect water is the determination of water temperature. SOLAR ENERGYSolar energy forms one of the cornerstones of clean alternate power solutions, and with the difficulties of fossil fuels growing larger by the day, may represent a viable solution to the worlds energy problems. Its environmental impact constitutes one of its primary selling points, and the more effectively it can function, the better its chances of supplanting fossil fuels as our main source of energy. Though largely positive, the environmental impact of solar energy can be subtle and its overall effect should be carefully considered as our efforts to explore its potential move forward. Carbon Emissions . The best thing about solar energy in terms of its environmental effects is that it produces almost no carbon emissions or greenhouse gases. It doesnt burn oil, it doesnt produce toxic waste, and its lack of moving parts reduces the chances of an environmentally devastating accident to nil. Indeed, the only pollutants which factor into solar power are those involved in the construction and transportation of its parts; that ranks it among the cleanest forms of energy on Earth. Implementing solar energy on a large scale would reduce its environmental footprint to a tiny fraction of its current levels.Renewable Energy 2. Solar power is also environmentally advantageous because its energy supply never runs out. Sunlight will always shine upon the Earth and, as long as it does, hold energy which solar technology can exploit. Contrast this with fossil fuels such as coal or oil, which need to be mined or drilled and thus have a tremendous environmental impact, even in comparatively safe circumstances. Abundant Components 3. The photovoltaic cells which constitute most solar energy systems are usually made of silicon, one of the most common minerals found on Earth.That means that creating the components is extremely easy, doesnt require mining or drilling in a dangerous locale to produce, and can be acquired without involvement in politically unstable areas such as the Middle East. The environmen tal effects of this are subtle but, because fewer resources are expended in the acquisition of silicon, its overall effect on the ecosystem is reduced. Cadmium 4. Cadmium is used in cadmium telluride solar cells as a semiconductor to convert solar energy into electricity. Though used in very small amounts, it is extremely toxic and can build up in a given ecosystem if it isnt monitored.Firms which make this kind of solar cell often instigate recycling programs so that damaged or unusable cells dont inadvertently damage the surrounding environment. Space Considerations 1. Solar panels are not as efficient as they could be one of the reasons why they have not been widely implemented yet. To capture appreciable amounts of energy, they require a large number of cells, which can take up a considerable amount of space. One practical solution is to mount the cells on a rooftop, which saves a lot of space while still allowing them maximum exposure to the sun.Large-scale solar farms still r equire a lot of room, however, and trees and bushes cant coexist with them lest they block sunlight from the receivers. WIND ENERGY Wind energy does not help the environment exactly. But using other sources of energy such as burning fossil fuels or using nuclear power can hurt the environment. So wind is less hurtful than these other sources of energy in many ways because wind energy does not create harmful waste products (CO2 in the case of fossil fuels and radioactive waste for nuclear power).Wind energy has its own problems however: it has been shown that the turbines can kill birds that fly into them, and some people find them ugly to look at. There are no sources of energy that are known that HELP the environment. There are just some that hurt it less than others. The best way to help the environment is to let it be undisturbed!! It is a renewable energy source with no bad side-effects and does not give off green house gases like coal or gas. | Wind energy is considered a green power technology because it has only minor impacts on the environment. Wind energy plants produce no air pollutants or greenhouse gases.However, any means of energy production impacts the environment in some way, and wind energy is no different. Aesthetics and Visual Impacts – Elements that influence visual impacts include the spacing, design, and uniformity of the turbines Birds and Other Living Resources – Preconstruction surveys can indicate whether birds or other living resources are likely to be affected by wind turbines Global Warming – Wind energy can help fight global warming. Wind turbines produce no air emissions or greenhouse gases Lightning – Ongoing research and increased operator experience are improving the understanding of lightning and wind turbinesNoise – Like all mechanical systems, wind turbines produce some noise when they operate. In recent years, engineers have made design changes to reduce the noise from wind turbines TV / Radio Interference – In the past, older turbines with metal blades caused television interference in areas near the turbine. Interference from modern turbines is unlikely because many components formerly made of metal are now made from composites Nuclear energy:- Power obtained by splitting heavy atoms (fission) or joining light atoms (fusion).A nuclear power plant uses a controlled atomic chain reaction to produce heat. The heat is used to make steam to run conventional turbine generators. EURO 1 AND EURO 2 NORMS What are Emission Norms? Emission norms are prescribed CO (Carbon Monoxide), HC (Hydrocarbons) and NOX (Nitrous oxide) levels set by the government which a vehicle would emit when running on roads. All the manufacturers need to implement the same for vehicles being manufactured from the date of implementation. What are Euro Norms? Euro norms refer to the permissible emission levels from both petrol and Diesel vehicles which have been implemented in Europe. However i n India, the government has adopted the Euro norms for available fuel quality and the method of testing. Euro-1 norms in India are known as INDIA 2000 since it will be implemented from 1/4/2000. The norms equivalent to Euro-2 are called 2005 norms but these have not yet been specified by the Indian Government. WHAT ARE THE EURO I AND EURO II NORMS? The Euro norms require manufacturers to reduce the existing polluting Emission Levels in a more efficient manner by making certain technical changes in their vehicles.WHAT ARE THE EMMISION LEVELS OF THE ABOVE NORMS? | EXISTING 1998| EURO I| EURO II| C. O. (carbon monoxide)(gm/km)| 4. 34 | 2. 75 | 2. 20| H. C + NO X (gm/km)| 1. 50| 0. 97| 0. 50| (Hydro Carbons ;amp; Nitrious Oxides)| | | | WHEN ;amp; WHERE ARE THE ABOVE EURO I AND EURO II NORMS GOING TO BE INTRODUCED? The above EURO I NORM from 1st JUNE 1999 is applicable only in the NCR (DELHI) as per the Supreme Court Ruling and the Government Regulations and the EURO II norm will be app licable to NCR from 1st APRIL 2000 .The EURO I norm will be applicable to Mumbai from January 1, 2000 while the EURO II norm will be applicable to MUMBAI from 1st APRIL 2000. WHAT CHANGES DO MANUFACTURERS HAVE TO MAKE IN ORDER TO MAKE EURO COMPLIANT VEHICLES? The following changes normally will be made by manufacturers in order to have a EURO I compliant car. Typically, the following areas would require attention: (a) carburetor retuning (b) secondary air intake (c) exhaust gas recirculation (d) catalyser capacity increase (e) trimetal coating in the catalyser.Changes for having a Euro II compliant vehicle require that the carburetor be replaced by an MPFI system i. e. a Multi-point Fuel Injection System. There are two basic types of engines, spark ignition and compression ignition engines. In the former, fuel ignition is triggered by an electric spark from a spark plug, while in the latter, atomized liquid fuel is injected with the help of a fuel pump and a nozzle into a cylinder f ull of hot compressed air, which results in ignition taking place.Larger cylinders which need more fuel require more than one injector, thus resulting in a multi-point fuel injection system. WHO CERTIFIES THE MANUFACTURER? The Automobile Research Institute (ARAI), Pune, is an independent third party assessor that issues a third party authenticity certificate guaranteeing the euro norm compliance by the manufacturer. EURO-1 ;amp; INDIA 2000 What happens to cars currently on the road and their sale? For vehicles currently running on Indian roads, there will be absolutely no problems or hassles for the present owners.Neither will it effect the sale of such vehicles after the enforcement of the Euro norms since a sale would just mean transfer of ownership. The Euro Norms are in no way connected to the sale of existing cars. Can modifications be done to meet Euro norms in present cars? Legally it is not required to convert the car into Euro compliant. What are the changes made to meet EU RO-1 NORM? * Carburettor retuned * Secondary air intake * EGR (Exhaust Gas Circulation) * Doubling the capacity of the Catalyser * Trimetal coating in the Catalyser

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Efficient Supply Chain Management Processes

Efficient Supply Chain Management Processes Introduction While the importance of proficient supply chain operations augments, organizations are obliged to make their processes incorporated with their chains of supply.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Efficient Supply Chain Management Processes specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is significant to have a proficient supply chain, in view of the fact that the supply chain management does not only include the management of the connection between the various stakeholders, but also brings into line the achievements of the organization in realizing its corporate objectives. Nevertheless, the current global and competitive business environment necessitates a number of obligations for the organizations. For them to take part in the markets and maintain their lead, organizations are obliged to adopt various approaches founded on a good relationship with the customers, suppliers, retailers, and subsidiaries. Cons equently, a number of novel strategies and pioneering managements ought to be established in the supply chain management processes. This paper discusses efficient supply chain management processes. Supply chain management (SCM) is the â€Å"integration of key business processes from initial raw material extraction to the final or end customer, including all intermediate processing, transportation, and storage activities and final sale to the end-product customer† ( Wisner et al., 28). Supply chain is â€Å"a set of three or more companies directly linked by one or more of the upstream and downstream flows of products, services, finances, and information from a source to a customer† (Mentzer, 5; Mentzer et al., 18). SCM assumes that all companies that take part in the process of distributing goods and services to the end users are constituents of a network, pipeline, or supply chain. It involves all things that are needed to ensure that the consumers are contented and t akes account of the products they will purchase, the methods of their manufacture, and the modes of transporting them. The supply chain philosophy ascertains that the consumers get the best products at an appropriate time, at a desirable price and within the preferred locality. The rise in rivalry, intricacy, and geographical scope in the business environment has resulted in this broadened scope. The advance in information and technology has led to optimization of supply chain performance. The advent of the internet has played a pivotal role in the movement of messages within the companies in a supply chain. Companies that have adhered to SCM principles have reported considerable cost and cycle time reductions, for instance, Wal-Mart Stores Inc. reported rise in inventory turns and lowering of out-of-stock events.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An essenti al principle of SCM is to observe the system of facilities, processes, and individuals who acquire raw materials, change them into manufactured goods, and eventually deliver them to the consumers as an amalgamated chain, instead of a cluster of different, but to some extent connected duties. The significance of this amalgamation cannot be overemphasized since the connections between the chains are the means of realizing the ultimate objective. As much as each company can have a supply chain, it does not imply that each company is able to manage optimally their supply chain to yield increased benefits. Although SCM is not complex in theory, it develops increased intricacies in practice as the company’s size and variety of products becomes larger. SCM is also intricate for the reason that companies may form constituents of a number of pipelines simultaneously. Elements of a supply chain The first element of a supply chain is production. Strategic decisions concerning production centers on the requirements of the consumers and the change in market trends as this is vital in meeting the goals of the organization. This initial phase in building up supply chain agility is concerned with the amount of products to manufacture and the various constituents that are to be produced. These strategic decisions concerning manufacturing should at the same time center on facilities available, value and quantity of the products to be made, while taking into consideration the requirements of the end-users. Alternatively, operational decisions centers on programming various operations within the organization, keeping equipment in good working condition and attending to the immediate needs of the customers. The maintenance of quality should be adhered to throughout the production process. The second element is supply. A company should be concerned with the capacity of their production to manufacture competent and good quality goods at minimized costs. However, a number of o rganizations are not able to give the required performance with the production of all the parts needed. Outsourcing is a good option to be reflected especially for parts that a company is unable to manufacture efficiently. Organizations should cautiously choose suppliers for raw materials based on developing velocity, quality and flexibility at minimized costs. In summary, an organization must make strategic decisions to ascertain their abilities to deliver quality products before outsourcing to other companies.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Efficient Supply Chain Management Processes specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The next element is inventory. Strategic decisions center on inventory and the quantity of finished goods that should be kept in the stores. A crucial issue exists between holding inventory in excess, which can result in increased costs to the company, and inadequate inventory that can fail t o meet the requirements of the consumers. This delicate balance scenario is critical in successful SCM. Operational inventory decisions are most of the time focused on having adequate inventory levels at every distribution link to cater for unpredictability in the market trends in order to maintain customer loyalty. Control strategies should consider having optimal levels of stock at every point. The subsequent element is location. Location decisions revolve around the fluctuating market demands and meeting the various requirements of the customers. Strategic decisions should be based on the positioning of manufacturing facilities, distribution networks, and putting them in strategic locations to attract as many customers as possible. Once prime locations are established, lasting decisions should be reached to locate manufacturing and stocking plants to be as near the consumer as possible. In companies where constituents are light in weight and depends on the market trends, the loca tion of the plants must be within the proximity of the customer. In heavier companies, accessibility to the source of the raw material should be the major concern. Decisions pertaining to location must also take note of tax and tariff issues; particularly where geographical boundaries are major hindrances to successful marketing. Transportation is another element. Strategic decisions concerning transportation issues are associated with inventory decisions and satisfying the varied consumer requirements. For example, air transportation enables the consumer to get the product faster but at increased costs compared to transportation by sea or rail. However, using sea or rail transport is slower and usually results in accumulation of stock in the store that may fail to provide the consumer with a quick service. Therefore, it is important to consider that because thirty percent of the overall cost of a product is included in its transport cost, making the right transport decision is cruc ial. Most of all, consumer service levels should be maintained at all times. Strategically, a company should have adequate measures to make sure that products are delivered timely to the targeted markets (Hugos, 14). The last element is information. Efficient SCM involves getting information from the position of the final consumer and joining that information throughout the chain to enable its faster flow. Information is used to coordinate daily activities and for forecasting and planning in guiding the schedule of the organization.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Too much use of paperwork and inefficient computer systems are unsuitable in the current competitive business environment. Cultivating the innovation culture needs consistent flow of information within the structure of an organization. Networks that link computers to each other and the use of internet consolidate the flow of vital information in an organization. Relationships within the supply chain Information and various process systems are amalgamated across the whole supply chain. The intricacy of supply chain increases as the goods and services move from one supplier to the next within the distribution network. The fundamental duties of a company remain the same, not considering whether or not it is following SCM. Suppliers are still needed to provide raw materials while production continues. Distributors are still needed to deliver the products to the consumers for them to purchase. The usual tasks of a company do not change. The eventual disparity in a company that practices SCM is that their attention changes from the occurrences in every link to involve the relationship existing among the various links (Helms, para. 6). An organization practicing efficient SCM also realizes that the chain has relationships that surpass the usual practices within its framework. Efficient management of the relationships is the place where the integration of the supply chain starts. Whichever enhancements or interruption to the supply chain relationships influences the whole chain. The collective supply chain outcome of indecision is illustrated in the following instance. Suppose a producer of iron box gets supply of poor quality thermostat, and since the producer is dependent on its supplier for prompt delivery, the poor quality batch leads to late delivery to a number of its customers. The iron box producer is compelled to stop further production since he or she lacks adequate material. In the end, the customer gets frustrated when he or she fails to get the preferred brand and ends up purchasing from a business rival. This process also has timing costs associated with it since the customer might have made the actual decision to purchase probably some time after delivery of the substandard thermostat. A number of occurrences take place within the supply chain that is most of the time unexpected. Suppliers may at times deliver materials earlier or later than anticipated. Consumers may increase, decrease, revoke previously assigned orders, or even place large orders. Vehicles used in transportation can break down. Workers can become unwell, refuse to work, or leave the job. Products destined to the market may be of poor quality. Some time ago, organizations prepared for the unexpected and increased their level of consumer contentment by allowing inventory to rise. However, presently this option is unacceptable since high inventories lead to increased costs of transportation and the possibility of the products becoming out dated thus impairing the f lexibility of the organization. All the way through the supply chain, inventory is most of the times generated and held at various places. A section of the inventory can then be decreased or eradicated thus the organization lowers costs and improves in productivity. Reducing the amount of duration it takes to transport manufactured goods from one link of the chain to the other also reduces the cycle time of the whole chain. Therefore, this enhances the competitiveness of the organization and increases the consumer contentment. The bullwhip effect Supply chain management gives the required visibility along the chain to increase the performance of the business and if this visibility is lacking up and down the supply chain, the bullwhip effect sets in. Since the consumer demand is most of the time not predictable, organizations ought to forecast demand to correctly position inventory and other available resources. Forecasts are derived from statistical data and may not be perfectly cor rect. Since forecast inaccuracies are evident, organizations usually have to deal with an inventory buffer known as the safety stock. Across the supply chain from the end-user to the one who supplies raw materials, everyone who takes part in supply chain has had increased observed variation in demand and therefore an increased requirement for safety stock. During the times when demand is increasing, down-stream participants’ raises their orders while when demand reduces, the quantity of orders reduce or halt to lower inventory. The effect seen is that variations are increased when a person goes upstream in the supply chain (away from the consumer). The causes of bullwhip effect can additionally be categorized into behavioral and operational causes. Behavioral causes involve wrong use of base-stock policies, lack of proper sensitivity to feedback and time delays, anxiety over unfulfilled demand, and observed threats of other players’ bounded rationality. Operational cau ses include dependent demand processing that comes due to forecast errors and altering of inventory control parameters with each demand perception. Others are lead-time variability, order synchronization due to consolidation of demands and transaction motives, trade promotion and forward buying, and lastly expectation of deficiency. The bullwhip effect has a number of consequences in the supply chain as is evident in the case of Proctor Gamble (PG) company. When the company was evaluating the demand patterns at different positions in the supply chain, it realized that its customers were using diapers at a steady rate. In this case, the demand order variability in the supply chain was increased as it travelled up the supply chain. The company was not capable of noticing the retailing of its products at the distribution channel stage. It had to depend on sales orders from vendors to formulate product forecasts, arrange for capacity, manage inventory, and program for production. This inadequate visibility led to too much inventory, error in forecasts, too much or restricted capacity, poor customer services, and the damage of its public image. Every connection in the supply chain had excessive inventory to offset the consequences of demand improbability and unpredictability. Research has indicated that having this excessive inventory is equivalent to one hundred days’ of supply. Consequently, by taking into account the effect on the raw materials, the total chain can have in excess of a year’s supply of inventory. Ideally, the bullwhip effect does not take place if all orders accurately fulfill the demand at every time. This effect is a major setback in forecast-driven supply chains and cautious control of the effect is a fundamental aspect for the success of any organization. One method of realizing this is to create a demand-driven supply chain that responds to real consumer orders. Wal-Mart distribution system has realized immense success by adop ting this model (â€Å"logistics,† para.13). Other companies, for example, Hewlett-Packard, PG, and Nestle have also been able to manage this effect. Other countermeasures that have been successfully implemented to control the bullwhip effect include innovative access to information for forecasting demand, reworked price structures, or coming up with approaches to incorporate small lot sizes at the same time as still maximizing transportation effectiveness (Mason and Towill, 43). Achieving this is possible through knowing the consequences of supply chain integration, visibility and information. SCM benefits Supply chain management gives several benefits to companies, which allows them to realize long-term profitability and continue with a solid competitive edge. There are four key advantages of implementing SCM. First, it results in improved supply chain network. SCM gives a proper visibility within the entire supply chain network of an organization. This is difficult to be r ealized when working with disjointed manual processes. By the use of supply chain, customers are able to keep an eye on the condition of all the activities within the entire distribution network. This results in more efficient monitoring and control of all interrelated processes. The processes start from obtaining raw materials to changing them into finished products to be purchased by the consumers. Therefore, the condition of all the activities can be monitored throughout and prompt corrective action undertaken before the situation becomes uncontrollable. Secondly, implementing SCM leads to minimized delays. A number of supply chains, especially those that have not be improved by a supply chain application, are usually interrupted by delays which can lead to reduced customer loyalty and loss in revenues. Orders delivery behind schedule, deceleration of production, and logistical blunders in marketing are all frequent issues that are able to reduce the capability of an organization in adequately meeting the needs of its customers. Implementing SCM ensures the efficient management of all activities from the beginning to the end. This results in increased level of on-time shipment of products across the board. Implementing SCM leads to enhanced collaboration among the various stakeholders. SCM makes it possible for an organization, suppliers and distributors to know the task each one of them is engaged in at all times as it bridges the gap between them, regardless of their geographical constraints. The supply chain partners are able to share crucial information, for example, forecasts and inventory conditions. This form of immediate, uninterrupted flow of information and sharing of vital data enables the supply chain partners to be conversant, thus making it possible for a smooth flow of supply chain processes. Lastly, SCM leads to reduced costs. SCM results in enhanced inventory control, which eradicates the strain on real estate and financial implications tha t often is realized when there is a need to keep surplus products. This strategy ensures more demand that is efficient planning. Therefore, production output can be targeted to a level that minimizes wastages due to lost sales. SCM makes it possible for an organization to have enhanced relationships with merchants and its distributors. This enables purchasing and logistics personnel to discover cost-cutting chances, for example, giving volume discounts. Requirements of SCM The first requirement is consumer focus. The supply chain begins and ends with the consumers, therefore the basic focus of SCM starts by appreciating the consumers, their importance, and needs. This involves understanding the internal consumers of the company as well as the consumers at the extreme end of the supply chain. Organizations ought to find out the requirements of the consumers from the product or services they are going to purchase. They should then focus their energy towards meeting these requirements. The process of the supplier ought to be associated with the purchasing process of the consumer and performance measurement ought to be consumer focused. This is because the behavior of the last consumer would eventually influence the performance of the whole supply chain. The second requirement is Information flow. Organizations should devote their resources in communication devices that are able to give rapid flow of information from one source to the other. Information is the key to enabling quick response among the parties in the supply chain in case any changes take place. Information assists in the process of decision making, for example, assessment and investigation options. The proper flow of information is significant to the visibility of the products and services as they move all the way through the supply chain as this enhances inventory control and consumer service abilities. Because matters of trust and security are important to information integration, a number of comp anies are triumphantly addressing these matters by coming up with partnerships in business. Another requirement is employee and management support. Supply chain approaches usually need transformations in processes and customary norms. This calls for flexibility among the supply chain members to be able to incorporate novel ways and concepts. Sometimes the level of flexibility and change needed becomes complex for companies and their workers. Nevertheless, the capability to adopt essential changes will enable an organization to reap the full benefits of implementing SCM. Since the supply chain is unpredictable, companies are instructed to give room for change, anticipate resistance and find ways of tackling any eventualities. Preparation in the ideas of SCM is able to assist in this endeavor. Furthermore, the new concepts should get adequate support from all the employees and those in management. The last requirement is measurement. Usually organizations adopt methods to enhance thei r performances minus taking concrete steps to ascertain the level of their success. The methods of measuring performance should reflect on the whole supply chain and be aimed at meeting the consumer requirements. Consequently, SCM guarantees that the methods of measurement are properly adhered to in the process of adopting SCM techniques in an organization. Attaining the objectives of SCM The ways that are employed to attain the objectives of SCM can be categorized into two groups. A number of ways strive to attain these objectives by enhancing the processes in the links of the chain while other ways strive to attain these objectives through transforming the duties or the purposes of the chain. The ways employed to enhance this process consist of modeling various alternatives, efficient measurement, and enhanced forecasting. Others are cross-docking inventories (products are not allowed to stop as inventory in the distribution chain), direct store delivery (bypass distribution cente r) and electronic data interchange technology. Direct store delivery method involves products that are needed when fresh or when fast restocking is needed. Electronic data interchange technology involves the use of computers as a method of communication among two or more organizations and it is used to process various issues that arise due to transaction. Big retailers such as Wal-Mart and Kmart have initiated this technology, which ensures that information is transmitted quickly. Other ways are present that employ changing roles to attain SCM objectives. These are postponement strategies (interrupts the differentiation of products to address the changing consumer requirements), vendor managed inventory (companies reach beyond their boundaries and combine their energies with suppliers and consumers), and supplier integration (organizations focus on allying with all the key suppliers in the supply chain). Supply chain operations reference The Supply-Chain Council (a not-for-profit tr ade association) set up the supply chain operations reference (SCOR) model. The model was made to illustrate all the activities of an organization that are related to meeting the requirements of the consumer and it divides the entire supply chain activities into five management processes of plan, source, make, deliver, and return. The model has numerous subdivisions. By illustrating supply chains, SCOR can be employed to illustrate supply chains that are extremely easy or extremely difficult through employing a standard of terminologies. Therefore, unrelated organizations can be connected to illustrate in detail the parameters in any supply chain. Global projects and site-specific projects have triumphantly adopted SCOR as a foundation for meeting their objectives. SCOR is an important tool employed by organizations to evaluate the arrangement of their supply chains, discover and assess metrics in the supply chain, establish weak points and attain optimal outcomes. SCOR is a cross-i ndustry guideline for supply chain management. It gives a universal supply chain framework, guideline on terms used, and regular metrics with related point of reference. Organizations, suppliers, and consumers are able to establish integrated supply chains using it since the model can be employed as a standard guideline for assessing, locating, and adopting SCM practices. Principles of supply chain management The first principle involves starting with the consumer by appreciating their values and varied needs. Consumers are grouped depending on the service requirements of the different groups. The supply chain is then altered to efficiently meet the needs of these groupings. These groupings assist the organization to provide products customized to the targeted market segment. The second principle involves managing logistics assets across the entire supply chain, not only within the organization. Plans that are concerned with the location of distribution plants, pipeline inventory, a nd transportation activities must involve both down-channel and up-channel partners, for example, retailer-managed inventory plans will need corporation to determine various delivery issues. The next principle appertains to organizing consumer management. This ensures that it gives one â€Å"face† to the consumer for any information needed as well as providing optimal customer service. It involves corresponding suppliers’ fulfillment processes with the consumers’ purchasing behavior and it necessitates that information technology to be organized to give a single window on the order status. The subsequent principle involves integrating sales and operations planning. This forms the foundation for a more responsive supply chain, for example, ensuring that all the functions have the same forecast number. This calls for sharing of information amongst the various stakeholders in a supply chain. The fifth principle appertains to leveraging manufacturing and sourcing to ensure flexible and competent processes. Leading organizations are implementing other strategies besides the traditional approaches. Postponement tactics, for an instance such as controlling production in order to lower inventory while maintaining optimal operations in the levels of stocks, can be practiced effectively. The next principle involves building strategic alliances and relationship management within all the members of the supply chain. Even though building a true collaboration is a daunting task, the reality is that if strategic relationships are lacking, controlling the whole supply chain as a distinct unit is difficult. The last principle deals with developing consumer-driven performance measures, which will eventually be the reference point for the behaviour of all the partners in the chain. The comprehensive supply chain strategy entails coming up with measures and performance criteria that checks the financial position of the entire supply chain. Conclusion As the s trategy of total quality management (TQM), Supply chain management is an advancing process since it lacks a definite stopping point. Implementing SCM ensures that an organization records increased benefits in costs reduction and competency improvement. Supply chains involves organizations together with the business operations required to design, make, deliver, and make use of a product or service. Organizations rely on their supply chains to provide them with what they need to survive and thrive in the competitive business environment. Each organization fits into one or more supply chains and has a duty to perform in every one of them. SCM attends to difficult matters and business rivalry by exploiting and improving the supply chain in order to give tactical, economic, and profitable outcomes to the organization. Helms, Marilyn. â€Å"Supply Chain Management.† Reference for Business. 2010. Web. Hugos, Michael. Essentials of supply chain management. Hoboken: Wiley Publishing, 2006. Print. â€Å"Logistics.† 2009 Global Sustainability Report. Wal-Mart. n.d. Web. Mason, Rachel and Dennis Towill. Coping with Uncertainty: Reducing Bullwhip Behaviour in Global Supply Chains. Supply Chain Forum 1.0 (2000): 40–44. Print. Mentzer, John T. et al. â€Å"Defining Supply Chain Management.† Journal of Business Logistics 22. 2 (2001): 1–25. Print. Mentzer, John T. Supply chain management. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication, 2001. Print. Wisner et al. Principles of supply chain management: a balanced approach. Mason: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Documentación para entrevista de visa americana

Documentacià ³n para entrevista de visa americana Los documentos que se llevan a la entrevista al consulado americano pueden ser muy importantes para ayudar al oficial consular a decidir si aprueba o niega la visa. Adems, la documentacià ³n es fundamental a la hora de luchar contra una decisià ³n de negacià ³n de visa que se considera es errà ³nea. Por lo tanto, si ests en el proceso de solicitar una  visa de no inmigrante  por primera vez o intentas obtener una aprobacià ³n despuà ©s de un rechazo de una peticià ³n anterior, te conviene informarte sobre quà © documentos llevar a la  entrevista en la embajada americana. Tanto  los obligatorios como los recomendados. En este artà ­culo puedes informarte sobre cules son las razones ms comunes para  de que nieguen una visa no inmigrante, como por ejemplo, la de turista, estudiante, trabajo o intercambio. Esto es importante porque hay que saber con anterioridad dà ³nde pueden estar los problemas y presentar documentacià ³n para mostrar evidencia que ayude a subsanarlos. Adems, segà ºn  el paà ­s en el que se aplica, quà © documentos llevar, cules son los tres  tipos de contestaciones que puede dar el oficial consular y quà © hacer si la visa es denegada. Recordar que la entrevista para todas las visas no inmigrantes se solicita como parte del trmite de la visa que se pide al llenar el formulario DS-160, que marca el inicio del mismo.  ¿Van a aprobar mi solicitud de visa americana no inmigrante? Esa es la pregunta que muchos solicitantes se hacen. pero no hay una respuesta que se pueda dar con absoluta certeza. Cada caso es un mundo con peculiaridades propias ya que ninguna persona es igual a otra. Lo que sà ­ se sabe es que en algunos paà ­ses los porcentajes de negacià ³n de las visas son ms altos que en otros. Sin embargo,  esto no debe de tomarse como una invitacià ³n a solicitar visas en consulados americanos distintos a los del paà ­s en el que se reside habitualmente, ya que para esto existen reglas especiales y, adems, puede no ser conveniente. Adems, existen situaciones que complican la peticià ³n de visa no inmigrante. Por ejemplo, cuando se est esperando por una visa inmigrante, es decir, por una tarjeta de residencia, tambià ©n conocida como green card. Las estadà ­sticas nos dicen como son las cosas y nos sirven para estar informados sobre quà © esperar. El gobierno de los Estados Unidos publica cada aà ±o fiscal cuntas visas se solicitan y cuntas son negadas. Adems, en cuntos casos se obtuvo finalmente una aprobacià ³n, a pesar de haber sido negada en un principio. En el 2017, el à ºltimo sobre el que hay datos, las embajadas y consulados de Estados Unidos aprobaron en todo el mundo un total de 9.681.913 visas no inmigrantes. Adems, no aprobaron un total de 3.516.581. Las causas principales de negacià ³n de la visa fueron, por el siguiente orden, las siguientes: En primer lugar, el solicitante no prueba suficientemente que no tiene intencià ³n de quedarse en Estados Unidos. Es la causa que se conoce como 214(b). En el FY2017, un total de 2.624.543 visas no inmigrantes fueron rechazadas por esta causa. En segundo lugar, la aplicacià ³n no cumple con los requisitos que exige la ley que se conoce como INA. Las causas ms frecuentes son la falta de documentos o informacià ³n o la necesidad de que otra agencia del gobierno revise la solicitud. En FY2017, un total de 811.238 solicitudes fueron rechazados por esta causa, que se conoce tà ©cnicamente como 221(g). En tercer lugar, por mentir para obtener  un beneficio, por escrito o hablando, en lo que se conoce en inglà ©s como misrepresentation y tà ©cnicamente como la causa 212(a)(6)(C)(i). En el à ºltimo aà ±o fiscal, 18.114 visas no inmigrantes fueron rechazadas por esta causa. En cuarto lugar, haber estado previamente de forma ilegal en Estados Unidos por ms de 365 dà ­as un total de 15.924 personas vieron sus peticiones de visa rechazadas.. Es la causa de negacià ³n de visa que se conoce como 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(II). En este punto hay que tener en cuenta que aplica el castigo de los tres y de los diez aà ±os. Y en quinto lugar, haber permanecido en Estados Unidos despuà ©s de haber cometido una violacià ³n migratoria. Esta causa, que se conoce como 212(a)(9)(c), afectà ³ a 9.551 solicitantes. Es muy importante tener en cuenta que durante ese mismo periodo de tiempo, un total de 744.003 solicitudes que en un principio fueron negadas fueron finalmente aprobadas porque se puedo demostrar con evidencias documentales que no aplicaba la causa de negacià ³n o porque puedo solicitar un waiver, tambià ©n conocido como perdà ³n, y à ©ste fue aprobado. Por lo tanto es evidente la importancia de la documentacià ³n para obtener la aprobacià ³n de la visa y, en el caso de ser negada, poder probar que la negacià ³n no corresponde. Documentos obligatorios para llevar a la entrevista para la visa americana Alguna papelerà ­a es comà ºn a todo tipo de visas no inmigrantes, por ejemplo: 1. Hoja de confirmacià ³n de la cita. 2. Pasaporte vlido y en buen estado. La fecha de expiracià ³n no puede ser inmediata. Las embajadas americanas imponen diferentes reglas a cada paà ­s en cuanto a quà © pasaporte esa vlido. Por favor verificar particularmente en aquellos paà ­ses en los que en los à ºltimos aà ±os ha habido cambios de modelos de pasaporte o existen diferentes modelos vlidos al mismo tiempo. Tambià ©n ver las reglas segà ºn el documento tenga incorporado chip o no. 3. Prueba de haber pagado el arancel o cuota de la visa. Hay que saber que este dinero nunca se recupera. Ni en los casos en los que la visa es rechazada ni cuando el solicitante cambia de idea y decide no ir a la entrevista porque ya no le interesa viajar a los Estados Unidos. Adems, en  algunos paà ­ses, como en el caso de Mà ©xico, es necesario acudir a un Centro de Atencià ³n antes de la entrevista por tema de  las fotos  y las huellas digitales. Pero cada paà ­s sigue sus propias reglas. Pero adems hay que seguir las reglas especà ­ficas de cada visa. Esto es asà ­ para casos como las de estudiante, intercambio, trabajo temporero, etc. Dos clases de problemas que pueden dar lugar al rechazo de la peticià ³n de visa Llegados a este punto hay que diferenciar entre dos posibles situaciones. Primero, si lo que se quiere es probar que no hay razones para negar la visa por ser inelegible. Y el segundo, cuando hay un problema que convierte al solicitante en inadmisible y desea pedir un perdà ³n, tambià ©n conocido como waiver o permiso. En otras palabras, la visa no inmigrante puede ser denegada porque se considera a una persona extranjera como inelegible para el visado que solicita o por ser inadmisible para ingresar a Estados Unidos. Documentos para que el oficial consular no considere al solicitante como inelegible Aunque hay varias causas, la ms comà ºn por la que se niega una visa no inmigrante como la de turista o la de estudiante es porque el cà ³nsul tiene sospechas de que el solicitante se puede quedar en Estados Unidos ms tiempo del permitido. En este punto es muy importante entender que dentro de las visas no inmigrantes hay dos que son consideradas de doble intencià ³n, las L y las H-1B. Esto quiere decir las personas con este tipo de visados pueden buscar activamente la green card en Estados Unidos. En otras palabras, no es importante para ellos probar que su intencià ³n no es quedarse en USA. Pero para el resto de las visas no inmigrantes, como la de turista, estudiante, intercambio y otras de trabajo temporal la causa ms comà ºn por la que no son aprobadas es precisamente porque el solicitante no es capaz convencer al oficial consular que su intencià ³n no es emigrar a Estados Unidos. En otras palabras, debe  probar lazos familiares y/o fuertes en su paà ­s de residencia.  Para eso se utilizan documentos adicionales, por ejemplo: Certificado o partida de nacimiento, original o copia certificada.Certificados de matrimonio, divorcio, relaciones de hecho, viudedad.Libros de familia en el que consten los hijos.Prueba de empleo, de ser propietario o socio de una empresa.Documento que acredite el estatus de estudiante.Cuentas bancarias tipo corriente y de ahorro con extractos que demuestren los movimientos en los à ºltimos seis meses.Inversiones, ahorros, propiedades de todo tipo.Hipotecas o contratos de arrendamiento de vivienda.Pensiones o rentas. Y adems  cualquier otra documentacià ³n que el solicitante crea que puede ayudarle a probar al oficial consular que su intencià ³n no es quedarse en Estados Unidos. No obstante, tener en cuenta que la persona de la oficina consular que lleva a cabo la entrevista no est obligada a examinar la documentacià ³n presentada. Es muy recomendable llevarla ordenada. Adems, para el caso concreto de solicitud de una visa de turista, paseo o placer puede ser conveniente contar con una carta de invitacià ³n redactada por un ciudadano americano, un residente permanente legal u otra persona que se encuentre legalmente en Estados Unidos. Pero no es necesario. Consecuencias de mentir  o presentar documentos falsos en la solicitud de visa Como se ha indicado previamente en este artà ­culo, la tercera causa ms comà ºn por la que se deniega una peticià ³n de visa no inmigrante es por mentir o presentar documentos falsos lo que, tà ©cnicamente, es un fraude de ley. Pueden darse mà ºltiples casos, como presentar documentos falsos de identidad, propiedades, trabajo o estudios acadà ©micos. Pero el fraude de ley incluye situaciones en la que se falta a la verdad en las contestaciones de que dan en el formulario de solicitud de  visa, por ejemplo, asegurando que no se tiene familiares que son ciudadanos americanos cuando lo cierto es que sà ­ se tienen. Una vez que las autoridades consulares o las de control migratorio se dan cuenta de que existe o puede existir un fraude de ley las consecuencias son inmediatas y graves. Por ejemplo, automticamente deniegan la peticià ³n de visa o, si à ©sta ya sido ya aprobada, la cancelan.   Aunque en casos muy concretos es posible levantar el castigo despuà ©s de haber cometido un fraude de ley mediante la peticià ³n de un waiver y, asà ­, obtener una visa, lo cierto es que es uno de los perdones ms difà ­ciles de obtener.   Quà © sucede despuà ©s de la entrevista en el consulado Pueden darse tres situaciones: 1. La visa es aprobada. En este caso el pasaporte debidamente estampado se recibir a los pocos dà ­as. Si este es el caso, los turistas deben tener especial cuidado y evitar estos 8 errores que pueden provocar que le cancelen la visa.   2. La visa entra en fase de procedimiento administrativo. No ha sido aprobada pero tampoco rechazada. Es lo que conoce como 221g. 3. La visa es denegada. Si una visa de turista o de estudiante, etc es negada porque no se ha podido demostrar lazos fuertes con el paà ­s de residencia, antes de pedirla de nuevo es conveniente realizar cambios que puedan convencer al consulado para aprobar una nueva solicitud. Si todo sigue igual, la respuesta va a ser la misma. Es decir: no. Por el contrario, si las razones para la negacià ³n fueron otras causas, es aconsejable consultar con un abogado para estudiar si procede solicitar un waiver, tambià ©n conocido como perdà ³n o permiso especial. Si se solicita un waiver, es importante contar con el asesoramiento de un abogado migratorio con experiencia en este tipo de casos ya que son complejos y conviene saber diferenciar entre todos los posibles perdones y cà ³mo argumentar y apoyar con documentacià ³n la peticià ³n de dicho waiver. Infà ³rmate con este  test de respuestas mà ºltiples Toma este quiz, trivial o test sobre visas para asegurarte de que sabes lo fundamental para obtener y conservar el visado. Este artà ­culo no debe considerarse como asesorà ­a legal. Tiene simplemente un carcter informativo.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Criminal Law Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 1

Criminal Law - Case Study Example In order to be able to advise Peeta, it is necessary to discuss the possible charges that might be brought against him and then examine any possible defenses. The starting point is to consider the necessary men's rea and actus reus of the offense of murder to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to charge Peeta with murder. From this, it will be necessary to consider the available defenses such as provocation, diminished responsibility, and automatism. It should then be possible to advise Peeta on the likelihood of the murder charge being reduced to manslaughter. When establishing a charge for murder the prosecution has to show that the defendant intended to kill the victim or to cause them serious bodily harm. The courts have accepted that the defendant has the necessary intention Where a person of sound mind and discretion, unlawfully kills any reasonable creature in being under the Queens Peace with intent to kill or cause grievous bodily harm. (Archbold: 19-1, 2008). R v Moloney [1985] and R v Woollin [1998] have removed the need to prove the malice aforethought element of the offense. There is no longer a need to prove premeditation and charges for murder have been accepted where the prosecution can prove that the defendant intended to cause serious harm to the victim. In determining the guilt of the accused, juries are generally instructed to consider the foresight of the accused on the basis of what the accused ought to have foreseen not what they actual foresaw as a result of their actions.