Thursday, October 31, 2019
Music Recording Industry - Essay Example Music file sharing on the Internet via websites and networks such as the notorious Napster has become an extremely controversial topic in recent years. Since May 1999, when Napster began introducing millions of Internet users to the pleasures of trading music via a peer-to-peer network, music file-sharing has become ubiquitous online. 42% of the respondents in a June 2001 study of online behavior among American Internet users conducted by Jupiter Media Metrix indicated that they had downloaded music from the Internet. Jupiter Media Metrix is a company that helps other companies develop, extend and integrate business strategies across online and emerging channels. Backed by proprietary data, Jupiter Research's industry-specific analysis, competitive insight and strategic advice give businesses the tools they need to exploit new technologies and business processes. With the rise of Internet use amongst the growing population around the world it has been easier then ever for individuals of all ages to download their favorite songs from the Internet. ... The recording industry views Napster-style file-sharing unambiguously as stealing and have tried to enforce its view by filing lawsuits against Napster and other similar online services. Napster itself has been effectively put out of business by legal action since July 2001, and a number of other lawsuits against most of the other major file-sharing services are currently pending. Among listeners, however, there is little agreement on whether or not file-sharing is the equivalent of theft, with many contending that they are actually led to purchase more music in physical form such as CDs because of their music downloading. Although the research taken in part by the record industry is very appealing, there are others who believe that the era of music file swapping across the Internet did not cause the acclaimed 5% drop in sales in recorded music. According to a research done in part by a company called Ipsos-Reid concluded that there exist a direct relation between downloading music from the Internet and the purchasing of recoding music. Those who download more music from the Internet are more likely to go out and buy recorded music from the stores. Another study conducted by Jupiter Media Metrix concluded similar results, as did the research done by Ipsos-Reid. The report which was released in May of 2002 surveyed 3,319 people contradicts the claims make by the record industry that file sharing and CD burning have been key contributors to the drop in record sales for the fiscal year of 2001. The report concluded that a considerable amount of people who download music frequently over the Internet are actually spending more on music than they did before they started downloading files. Only about 14% of heavy file traders have reported that they now spend less
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
African Americans since 1865 Essay It happens to be common knowledge that throughout history African Americans have been oppressed, segregated, and disregarded as civil human beings. In the dawn of history Africans were regarded as animals and as such they would do the job of animals, however this paper will look at their sacrifices and fights to be treated as equals. The abolishment of slavery brought on a war, not between two countries but a war that divided a country, one that is still spoken of today. The southern or Ã¢â¬Å"rebelÃ¢â¬ states rose against the President of the United States in retaliation of his and many others view that no man woman or child should be a slave. All people were created equal. Africans in politics Although four million African American slaves were now free they had codes placed against them, the Black Codes restricted the lives and movement of these people. In order to override the codes the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments were drafted and passed. Not only was slavery abolished but all slaves were now citizens and in such race could no longer be used to prevent the vote of a person. Africans now had a voice on who was elected and soon they had African Americans running for government offices. Corbould, C. (2009) Becoming African Americans: Black Public Life in Harlem, 1919-1939 Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA, USA Harlem Renaissance African Americans soon were cast aside again, during the age of imperialism and leading into World War One Africans were struggling to make a life. Some fought in another war, this time not for their freedom but for the freedom from communism alongside their white counterparts. After the war ended blacks started to come together, the Harlem Renaissance was born. King, M. L. Jr. (2010) Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story. Beacon Press. Boston, MA, USA Black power movement 1954 to 1963 America saw a strong struggle for the advancement of civil rights, equality and desegregation. From every day citizens expressing their belief in being equal to their white counterparts to lawyers fighting for the equality all had deserved. These times were pivitol in an unstable America. Not only were there these movements of civil equality and black power but also a war in a far land that many Americans were against at the time. Inventions and impact From writers, inventors and powerful leaders throughout black history there are some that are household names and some that may be forgotten. I plan on taking a look back on those who through oppression continued to strive for better for themselves and for all. African Americans today Not long ago segregation was prominent, civil rights were abused, racism and hate were common. Today we have CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s, congressmen and senators, military leaders and the President of the United States who are all African Americans. No longer considered a minority in manyÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, African Americans have literally built themselves from slaves to leaders and teachers.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Preserving Minority Languages On the other hand, according to Anthony Ellis, it would be trifling to insist that extinction of language causes extinction of culture because language is not whole culture but just one part of it (Ellis, 2005). Nevertheless, according to David Harrison, linguist and professor of the Swarthmore College, languages have been shaped by people to serve as repositories for cultural knowledge, efficiently packaged and readily transmittable across generations. (Harrison, 2007:7). In other words, it is crucial for human race to keep the conservation of minority language due to its cultural values: academic, ethnic and social values. The first cultural value of minority language is its academic value. Linguists especially have academic passion for protecting and researching minority languages. They should study many different languages to restore their all functions and structures of endangered languages. It must also be noted that linguists need to train many youngsters at school to transmit their native languages to next generations. Moreover, one of most important reason why it is needed to keep minority languages researching is that academically new and attractive facts are always discovered in minority languages. Ubykh, one of minority language of the North-western Caucasian group spoken by the Ubykh people until the early 1990s, was regarded as a language which has a large number of consonants (Romaine, 2007). Recent researches, however, show that some African language have more consonants than Ubykhs. Furthermore, linguists found an African language called Hixkaryana, which has about 350 speakers. The reason why this language and its adjacent languages have an attention is that they are cases of language which place their object first when they make a sentence. For an instance, if the English sentence, I love you, is made, the sentence in Hixkaryana should be you love I instead of I love you. In the case of Korean and Japanese, they have the archetypal structural order, Subject + Object + Verb(SOV). They say I you love whilst English speakers say I love you. It is clear that contemporary English has self-evident sentence order, Subject + Verb + Object(SVO). However, Irish puts its verb firs t. Unfortunately, linguists predict that object-initial languages such as Hixkaryana will vanish in the next century. (Nettle Romaine, 2000:11) At this point, it should be academically asked that why object-initial languages are hard to survive in the modern era. This is the academic question which needs to be examined by researching minority languages. There will be a number of these kinds of academic questions from minority languages. This academic knowledge will be a great legacy for human race. This is why we preserve minority languages. The second cultural value of minority language is the value about its ethnic identity. One of the most important factors of ethnic identity is language. In the time of globalisation, identity of people is defined by the language that they speak and write rather than the region that people live. For an example, although every people in London speak common language, English, it is unsure that all of them are English people because some of them have their native languages. It means that people can find their ethnic identity when they speak their native languages. The importance of ethnic identity acquired by using native languages is closely related with national stature of each country. For example, one of the urgent issues of Ukraine after independence in 1991 was to establish its linguistic identity to rise up the stature of nation-state. After breaking up Soviet-union, one of differences between other nation-states and Ukraine was the influence of Russian. Unlike other nation-states, Russians was used in more widely and still made an impact on culture, science, management and so on in Ukraine. In this situation, Ukraine declared the new constitution and it expressed clearly that there is only one national language. By this process, Ukrainian became only one official language of Ukraine. People who used Ukrainian thought that people who still used Russian didnt have any ethnic identity as the member of Ukraine (Zhurzhenko, 2002). For another example of historically dark side, during the Japanese occupation in the past, Hangeul, Korean native language made by Sejong the Great in 1443, was strictly banned to use among Koreans as a colonial policy for ethnocide. Koreans were forced to change even their Hangeul names to Japanese names. Koreas national stature could not help fall. These historical facts above clearly demonstrate that language can not be divided from the ethnic identity. For this reason, if minority languages become extinct, the ethnic identity of those who use minority language will be disappeared as well. The third cultural value of minority language is its aesthetic value. Every language has its aesthetic values. This is expressed by art works through languages such as novels, poets and even music. Research has shown that there is the tendency to regard analogies between artforms and linguistic structures as relevant and illuminating. (Kraut, 2007:177). It is said that Jazz improvisation is analogous to spontaneous speech.'(ibid). In other words, it means that all minority languages have their unique aesthetic values. For an instance, China is unified multiracial nation and 56 tribes are living together in an extensive land. The numbers of minority tribes languages are around 60. Even though they are minority languages, their aesthetic values are proved by their literatures. Tibetians literary value is excellent and its Gesaer, written in the 13th century BC, has been well-known as the longest heroic epic over the world. Dong, one of minority ethnic groups in China has their native language, Kradai. It is told that Kradai is a profusion of musical value because it has various tones and vocabularies. Kradai has been developed in unique musical ways of Dongs people. It is known that Kradai is the most complex language over the world because it has 15 tones whilst the language of the Han race in China has 4 tones. As a matter of fact, its complexity contributed to make its aesthetic value. Therefore, it is natural that this great value dies if minority languages of Chinas minority ethnic groups die. For these three cultural values, which are academic, ethnic and aesthetic values, it is self-evident that minority languages are definitely deserved to be protected and transmit to their next generations as their great legacy. That is to say, minority languages are not a part of culture and a method of communications but culture itself. When a language dies, a culture dies. Conclusion In conclusion, it is urgently asked at this time to protect minority languages. Firstly, it is essential that the endangered languages ought to be found, stabilised all linguistic functions and all people help them be transmitted to next generations. Secondly, it is needed to make preserving minority languages be an important part of Conservation ethic. It means that people should realise that our language is equally one of the great natural environments and endeavour to protect our linguistic environment. Lastly, there has to be unremitting exertion for native language education even if it is minority language. For an instance, some Korean scholars pointed out to Koreas education environment just focused on English instead of Hangeul, Korean language and predicted there will be no Hangeul after 200 years if we keep this education system. Minority language education is important especially for next generations. Therefore, the fact that extinction of a language engenders extinction of a culture should be remembered to all generations and make a great effort to preserve minority languages. Bibliography Ellis, Anthony (2005). Minority Rights and the Preservation of Languages. Cambridge Journals: 199-217. The Royal institute of Philosophy. Harrison, David. K. (2007). When Languages Die: The Extinction of the Worlds Languages and the Erosion of Human Knowledge. USA, Oxford University Press. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/7206411.stm (Accessed 08 November 2010). Kraut, Robert. (2007). Artworld Metaphysics. Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2008. Nettle, D. and S. Romaine (2000). Vanishing voices : the extinction of the worlds languages. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Romaine, Suzanne. (2007). Preserving Endangered Languages. Language and Linguistics compass 1/1-2:115-132. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Zhurzhenko, Tatiana. (2002). Language Politics in Contemporary Ukraine: Nationalism and Identity Formation. IWM Junior Visiting Fellows Conferences, Vol. XII/2.
Friday, October 25, 2019
Why Do History Textbooks Hesitate to Tell the Truth About Slavery? Works Cited Missing  In the movie Sankofa, Haile Gerima does not hesitate to show the audience the horrors of slavery. Not only does he show the brutal and humiliating practices used by slaveholders to subjugate slaves but he also shows how slaveholders used Christianity to control and manipulate slaves. He demonstrates the huge impact of slavery on todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society and the importance of looking back to slavery to understand the present. Traditionally, history textbooks have hesitated to talk about any of these aspects of slavery. Present history books have begun to describe the brutalities of slavery but still refuse to explain slaveryÃ¢â¬â¢s impact or to mention ChristianityÃ¢â¬â¢s role in slavery. There are three main reasons for this hesitance to be truthful about all aspects of slavery when writing history textbooks. These are patriotism for the United States, cultural bias towards the white race, and a bias towards Christianity. Nationalism/Patriotism  When scholars and historians write history books, they are usually limited by their sense of nationalism or patriotism. They hesitate (or avoid altogether) to write about events or institutions that make the United States look bad. As James Loewen points out, history textbooks "...leave out anything that might reflect badly [on] our national character" (2). Most citizens of the United States are proud of the United States, its history, and its present role in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s affairs. They do not want to write or read about wrongs and injustices that the United States government or state governments have allowed or even encouraged. Eric Foner, professor of history at Columbia University, mentioned in a show called "Who Owns History", that the founding fathers considered slavery when writing the constitution and that the constitution strengthened the institution of slavery, by giving slaveholders more power. Most people have never heard of this because the constitution was always heralded as an incredible piece of writing that created a fair and balanced government. Historians avoided mentioning that the constitution strengthened slavery because that would taint the legacy of the constitution and the United States as a whole. History that we learn in school is not an unbiased narration of facts; it is molded and interpreted by the historians who write about it. Historians are constantly influenced by national pride and the desire to make our nation look good.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
How is the word myth used popularly? For example, what does the statement, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a mythÃ¢â¬ mean? In contrast, how is the word myth used in the academic context? After considering the things in the definition in your textbooks and course materials, write a definition in your own words. The word myth is used in stories told people donÃ¢â¬â¢t know if the stories told are true or not. My personal belief is that a myths can be both true and not true tales. My reason for this because things in the area that happened more than fifty years ago or longer could be turned into false information after the years and years of being restated, no one knows because this area has happened so long ago in time. Myths are stories that were passed on from one generation to the next one its fiction and non -fiction. Myth is used in academic context as being an explanatory narrative, & illustrates how people should act and the existing social order. They are collectively authored and are created by people traditions and oral traditions are told and retold over time. My definition of myth is something that has reason for it could be true or untrue depending on the topic; you just have to use logic to determine the truth of the quote or statement. Why do myths from different cultures around the world address such similar or universal themes? Think about how myths explain the unknown and the tribulations of mankind. The reasoning why myths from other cultures are similar is because of their story lines, they are different because every couture has their own behalfÃ¢â¬â¢s and way of doing things accordantly and the ways in which it has been done for generation after generation most people believe that this way is best. They share a way that is perspective, and has value and interest and couldÃ be their own stories. In many myths your able to format we connect to each other no matter the religion choice or aspect on the different types of myths. Myths are great in explaining the unknown and the tribulations of mankind. Myths give meaning into our lives, they explain things that are unexplaning they encourage or give us great ideas about different events and in schools helping students learn the different myth types. By doing this it enables us to learn different myths that are out there and the background of them. Myths give you laughter or tears and a clearer understanding of different things going on in our current life and events that happened before our time. What is the relationship between belief, knowledge, mythology, and religion? Where do mythology and religion intersect? Where do they diverge? Think about the function of myth and religion in helping human beings cope with change, suffering, loss, and death. There are many huge differences between religion and myth they can be overlapping mythology is one component or aspect of religion knowledge is very eternal and ever changing axiom. Mythology and religion intersect at they start as explanation accepted by people are two different things, mythology isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a religion but a myth of stories and the studies it can explain the unexplainable religions are surely traditional stories. They diverge easily but are both the same type of things with just different labels in difference between the two is that mythology is about anything a belief which has existed with not any proof. Religion is that of what you worship or reveres the persons or objects. In cases religion and myth always help us cope with change, suffering, with loss and deaths no matter what we will all deal with these things in our own personal ways, no one will ever grieve with lose the same as another person.Ã How would you defend mythologyÃ¢â¬â¢s relevance in contemporary culture? Think about familial and cultural traditions. Also, consider how mythology is used in the arts and in advertising to typify human experience. I would defend mythologyÃ¢â¬â¢s relevance in contempary culture as being very relevant and great need in society it gives us insight on all cultures from around the entire world. I would defend the mythology perspective my familyÃ has a tradition of having yearly trail rides in the town I am from and getting together at least once a year either thanksgiving or Christmas time this helps our family find out how we all are doing in our lives because we all become very busy Mythology is used in the arts and advertising to typify the human experiences. References www. Askville.amazon.com www.eridu.co.uk/Author/myth_religion/myth_religion. Html mythsdreamssymbols.com/Importance of myth. Html EBOOK COLLECTION: Leonard, S., & McClure, M. (2004). Myth & knowing: An introduction to world mythology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"A STUDY ON THE PROCESSES AND CHALLENGES INVOLVED IN RECRUITMENT FOR RETAIL INDUSTRY WITH RESPECT TO RELIANCE FRESH, BANGALOREÃ¢â¬ (Project Report Submitted in Partial fulfilment of the requirements of two year Post Graduate diploma in Business Administration) By Saumya Sinha (Registration no. 2K11058) Under the Guidance of Prof. Philcy Philip Mount Carmel Institute Of Management Bangalore, 560052 2011-2013 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my sincere thanks to Sr. Juanita, Director and Mr.Michael Noronha, Dean of Management studies, Mount Carmel Institute of Management, for giving me an opportunity to do this project. I am immensely thankful to my project guide Prof. Philcy Philip, for her guidance towards the successful completion of the project. I would like to thanks Mr. Jatindra Kumar Mishra, Vice President-HR Reliance Retail Ltd. for giving me an opportunity to do a project in Reliance Retail Ltd. Bangalore. I would also extend my sincere thanks to Mr. Prabir Ku . Jena (HR Manager) and Mr Nagendra Kumar (HR Manager) of RELIANCE RETAIL for their valuable suggestions and support throughout the project.I would also extend my gratitude to Mr. Solomon Jayakumar, who has helped me in this project. I wish to thank the Management and staff of Reliance who have extended their co-operation in providing me all the information required for preparing this project. Finally, I am thankful to my Family and Friends for having helped me in various ways in successful completion of this project work. Saumya Sinha Mount Carmel Institute of Management BangaloreGuide Certificate Certified that the dissertation is based on an Original Project Study conducted by Miss. Saumya Sinha under my guidance. This project report has not formed a basis for the award of any other Degree/Diploma of the Institute or any other University. Director Signature Guide Signature (Sr. Juanita) (Prof. Philcy Philip) DeclarationI, Saumya Sinha solemnly declare that this Project report on Ã¢â¬Å"A Study on the processes and challenges involved in recruitment for retail industry with respect to Reliance Fresh, BangaloreÃ¢â¬ has been compiled by me and has not been copied from any student researcher/employee in any university/institution/ organization or any other place of distance learning under my knowledge. I have duly acknowledged the sources of primary data wherever they have been used in the project. Saumya Sinha PGDBA Mount Carmel Institute Of Management, Bangalore CONTENTS SR. NO. | Topics covered| Page no. |Chapter 1:| Introduction & Theoretical Background of the Topic| 11-20| Chapter 2:| Research Design| 21-24| Chapter 3: | Company Profile| 25-33| Chapter 4: | Collection of Data, Analysis and Evaluation| 34-74| Chapter 5:| Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Suggestions| 75-82| | Bibliography| 83| | Annexure| 84-87| LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO. | TOPICS COVERED| PAGE NO. | 1. | Method adopted by Reliance to source candidates| 35| 2. | Type of recruitment pref erred in Reliance| 37| 3. | Tests used during the process of recruitment| 39| 4. | Factors which influence the recruitment process in Reliance| 41| 5. Technological support for the process of recruitment| 43| 6. | Time taken by HR managers to fill the gap at store level| 45| 7. | Back out percentage of candidates after being offered| 47| 8. | Biggest challenge faced by the organization in the process of recruitment| 49| 9. | Most important reason for attrition| 51| 10. | Solution for attrition in the organization| 53| 11. | Working duration of CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s in the organization| 55| 12. | Information about the vacancy in the organization| 57| 13. | Time spent by CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s for the process of recruitment| 59| 14. Problems faced by CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s during the process of recruitment| 61| 15. | Satisfaction level of CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s with the recruitment Process| 63| 16. | Working duration of Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s in the organization| 65| 17. | Main reason behind leaving the organization| 67| 18. | Aw areness of job profile at the time of joining| 69| 19. | Work environment is good or not| 71| 20. | Willingness to rejoin the organization| 73| LIST OF CHARTS SR. No. | TOPICS COVERED| PAGE NO. | 1. | Method adopted by Reliance to source candidates| 36| 2. | Type of recruitment preferred in Reliance| 38| 3| Tests used during the process of recruitment| 40| . | Factors which influence the recruitment process in Reliance| 42| 5. | Technological support for the process of recruitment| 44| 6. | Time taken by HR managers to fill the gap at store level| 46| 7. | Back out percentage of candidates after being offered| 48| 8. | Biggest challenge faced by the organization in the process of recruitment| 50| 9. | Most important reason for attrition| 52| 10. | Solution for attrition in the organization| 54| 11. | Working duration of CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s in the organization| 56| 12. | Information about the vacancy in the organization| 58| 13. Time spent by CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s for the process of recruitment| 60| 14. | Problems faced by CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s during the process of recruitment| 62| 15. | Satisfaction level of CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s with the recruitment Process| 64| 16. | Working duration of Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s in the organization| 66| 17. | Main reason behind leaving the organization| 68| 18. | Awareness of job profile at the time of joining| 70| 19. | Work environment is good or not| 72| 20. | Willingness to rejoin the organization| 74| CHAPTER Ã¢â¬â 1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Human Resource management is a function that helps managers recruit, select, train and develop members for an organization. Recruitment is an important part of an organization's human resource planning and their competitive strength. Competent human resources at the right positions in the organization are a vital resource and can be a core competency or a strategic advantage for it. The objective of theÃ recruitmentÃ process is to obtain the number and quality of employees that can be selected in order to help the or ganization to achieve its goals and objectives. With the same objective, recruitmentÃ helps to create a pool of prospective employees for the organization so that the management can select the right candidate for the right job from this pool.RecruitmentÃ acts as a link between the employers and the job seekers and ensures the placement of right candidate at the right place at the right time. In this competitive global world and increasing flexibility in the labour market,Ã recruitmentÃ is becoming more and more important in every business. Therefore,Ã recruitmentÃ serves as the first step in fulfilling the needs of organizations for a competitive, motivated and flexible human resource that can help achieve its objectives. PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE OF RECRUITMENT * Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organisation. Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organisation. * Determine present and future requi rements of the organization in conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities. * Recruitment is the process which links the employers with the employees. * Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost * Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants. * Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and selected will leave the organization only after a short period of time. Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its workforce. * Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. * Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates. * Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in short term and long term. * Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the compositions of its workforce. | SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT Every organisation has the option of c hoosing the candidates for its recruitment processes from two kinds of sources: internal and external sources.The sources within the organisation itself (like transfer of employees from one department to other, promotions) to fill a position are known as the internal sources of recruitment. Recruitment candidates from all the other sources (like outsourcing agencies etc. ) are known as the external sources of recruitment. | | | SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT INTERNAL SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT1. TRANSFERS The employees are transferred from one department to another according to their efficiency and experience. 2. PROMOTIONSThe employees are promoted from one department to another with more benefits and greater responsibility based on efficiency and experience. 3. Others areÃ upgrading and demotionÃ of present employees according to their performance. 4. Retired and Retrenched employeesÃ may also be recruited once again in case of shortage of qualified personnel or increase in load of work . Recruitment such people save time and costs of the organisations as the people are already aware of the organisational culture and the policies and procedures. 5.The dependents and relatives ofÃ deceased employees and disabled employees are also done by many companies so that the members of the family do not become dependent on the mercy of others. | | | EXTERNAL SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT1. PRESS ADVERTISEMENTS Advertisements of the vacancy in newspapers and journals are a widely used source of recruitment. The main advantage of this method is that it has a wide reach. 2. EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES Various management institutes, engineering colleges, medical Colleges etc. are a good source of recruiting well qualified executives, engineers, medical staff etc.They provide facilities for campus interviews and placements. This source is known as Campus Recruitment. 3. PLACEMENT AGENCIES Several private consultancy firms perform recruitment functions on behalf of client companies by chargi ng a fee. These agencies are particularly suitable for recruitment of executives and specialists. It is also known as RPO (Recruitment Process Outsourcing) 4. EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES Government establishes public employment exchanges throughout the country. These exchanges provide job information to job seekers and help employers in identifying suitable candidates.Recruitment ProcessThe recruitment and selection is the major function of the human resource department and recruitment process is the first step towards creating the competitive strength and the strategic advantage for the organisations. Recruitment process involves a systematic procedure from sourcing the candidates to arranging and conducting the interviews and requires many resources and time. A general recruitment process is as follows: 1. Identify vacancy 2. Prepare job description and person specification 3. Advertising the vacancy 4. Managing the response 5. Short-listing 6. Arrange interviews 7.Conducting interview a nd decision makingThe recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process i. e. the final interviews and the decision making, conveying the decision and the appointment formalities. | | RECRUITMENT POLICY OF A COMPANYIn todayÃ¢â¬â¢s rapidly changing business environment, a well defined recruitment policy is necessary for organizations to respond to its human resource requirements in time. Therefore, it is important to have a clear and concise recruitment policy in place, which can be executed effectively to recruit the best talent pool for the selection of the right candidate at the right place quickly.COMPONENTS OF THE RECRUITMENT POLICY * The general recruitment policies and terms of the organization * Recruitment services of consultants * Recruitment of temporary employees * Unique recruitment situations * The selection process * The job descriptionsFACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT POLICY * Organizational objectives * Personnel policies of the organization and its competitors. * Government policies on reservations. * Preferred sources of recruitment. * Need of the organization. * Recruitment costs and financial implications. RECENT TRENDS IN RECRUITMENT | |The following trends are being seen in recruitment:OUTSOURCING In India, the HR processes are being outsourced from more than a decade now. A company may draw required personnel from outsourcing firms. The outsourcing firms help the organization by the initial screening of the candidates according to the needs of the organization andÃ creating a suitable pool of talent for the final selection by the organisation. Outsourcing firms develop their human resource pool by employing people for them and make available personnel to various companies as per their needs.In turn, the outsourcing firms or the intermediaries charge the organisations for their services. Advantages of outsourcing are: * Company need not plan for human resources much in advance. * Value creation, operational flexibility and competitive advantage * turning the management's focus to strategic level processes of HRM * Company is free from salary negotiations, weeding the unsuitable resumes/candidates. * Company can save a lot of its resources and timePOACHING/RAIDINGÃ¢â¬Å"Buying talentÃ¢â¬ (rather than developing it) is the latest mantra being followed by the organisations today.Poaching means employing a competent and experienced person already working with another reputed company in the same or different industry; the organisation might be a competitor in the industry. A company canÃ attract talent from another firm by offering attractive pay packages and other terms and conditions, better than the current employer of the candidate. But it is seen as an unethical practice and not openly talked about. Indian software and the retail sector are the sectors facing the most severe brunt of poaching today.It has become a challenge for human resource managers to face and tackle poaching, as it weake ns the competitive strength of the firm. E-RECRUITMENT Many big organizations use Internet as a source of recruitment. E- Recruitment is the use of technology to assist the recruitment process. They advertise job vacancies through worldwide web. The job seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae i. e. CV through e mail using the Internet. Alternatively job seekers place their CVÃ¢â¬â¢s in worldwide web, which can be drawn by prospective employees depending upon their requirements.Advantages of recruitment are: * Low cost. * No intermediaries * Reduction in time for recruitment. * Recruitment of right type of people. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RECRUITMENT AND SELECTIONBoth recruitment and selection are the two phases of the employment process. The differences between the two are:Ã * Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation WHEREAS selection involves the series of steps by which the candidate s are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts. The basic purpose of recruitments is to create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organisation, by attracting more and more employees to apply in the organisation WHEREAS the basic purpose of selection process is to choose the right candidate to fill the various positions in the organisation. * Recruitment is a positive process i. e. encouraging more and more employees to apply WHEREAS selection is a negative process as it involves rejection of the unsuitable candidates. Recruitment is concerned with tapping the sources of human resources WHEREAS selection is concerned with selecting the most suitable candidate through various interviews and tests. | | | HR CHALLENGES IN RECRUITMENTRecruitment is a function that requires business perspective, expertise, ability to find and match the best potential candidate for the organisation, diplomacy, marketing skills (as to sell the position to the candidate) and wisdom to align the recruitment processes for the benefit of the organisation. The HR professionals Ã¢â¬â handling the recruitment function of the organisation- are constantly facing new challenges.The biggest challenge for such professionals is to source or recruit the best people or potential candidate for the organisation. In the last few years, the job market has undergone some fundamental changes in terms of technologies, sources of recruitment, competition in the market etc. In an already saturated job market, where the practices. like poaching and raiding are gaining momentum, HR professionals are constantly facing new challenges in one of their most important function- recruitment. They have to face and conquer various challenges to find the best candidates for their organisations. | ATTRITIONWhat is Meant by Attrition Rate? The term Ã¢â¬Ëattrition rate' can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"A reduction in the number of employees through retirement , resignation or death. Ã¢â¬ It denotes the percentage change in the labour force of an organization. High percentage of labour turnover is not desirable for the organization because new workers are engaged in place of the workers who left the organization. Why do Employees Leave the Organization? There are a number of reasons for employees leaving the organization. Well, the most obvious reason for employees leaving any organization is higher pay.The main problem here is that employees are moved from one location to another location along with their family. But this problem is taken care of by a salary hike which may be around 20%-35% per annum. Another factor is work timings. In some organizations, work timings are such that they are making employees leave the organization. Another factor is career growth. In many organizations, only 20% of employees are able to go to senior levels. This means that the remaining 80% of employees look for other organization where they can get op portunities for growth.One more reason for leaving the organization is higher education. These days, in many organizations, employees are joining at very young age because of lucrative salaries being offered. But with time, they apply for higher education and try to move on to other organizations or sectors to occupy top management positions. The percentage of women workers is also responsible for higher attrition rate. These days, the percentage of women workers is around 30%. Generally, women workers leave the organization after marriage to take up their house-hold duties, irregular work hours et al. 0% of employee turnover can also be attributed to the mistakes during hiring process (Harvard Business Review). Other factors include accident making the worker permanently incapable of doing work, dislike for the job or place, unsatisfactory work conditions leading to strained work relationships with the employer; lack of security of employment et al also contribute for higher attrit ion rateAttrition rate is calculated as under A. Manpower at the beginning of the year add number of people recruited during the year less number of employees resigned. B.Take the average of the manpower at the beginning of the year and the result of Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ above. C. Divide the number of employees resigned during the year by Ã¢â¬Å"BÃ¢â¬ above. In addition to the above you may go through the exit interview forms of the employees resigned and use information from the research. You may also contact a sample (10%) of the people who resigned 6 months or earlier, send them exit interview form again and see if the reason for change is the same as stated earlier. Further, you may redesign the exit interview form as questionnaire and send to the sample.CHAPTER 2DESIGN OF THE STUDYINTRODUCTION TO THE SUBJECTRecruitment is of the crucial roles of the human resource professional. The level of performance of an organization depends on the effectiveness of its recruitment function. O rganization has developed & follows recruitment strategies to hire the best talent for their organization and to utilize their resources optimally. A successful recruitment strategy should be well planned & practical to attract more & good talent to apply in the organizationRecruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening, and selecting qualified people for a job at an organization or firm.For some components of the recruitment process, mid- and large-size organizations often retain professional recruiters or outsource some of the process to recruitment agencies. The recruitment and selection is the major function of the human resource department and recruitment process is the first step towards creating the competitive strength and the strategic advantage for the organisations. Recruitment process involves a systematic procedure from sourcing the candidates to arranging and conducting the interviews and requires many resources and time.In this competitive global world and increasing flexibility in the labour market,Ã recruitmentÃ is becoming more and more important in every business. Therefore,Ã recruitmentÃ serves as the first step in fulfilling the needs of organizations for a competitive, motivated and flexible human resource that can help achieve its objectives. Technically speaking, the functions of recruitment precedes the selection function and it includes only developing the sources of prospective employees and attracting them to apply for jobs in their organization. whereas selection is the process of finding out the most suitable candidates to the jobs out of the candidates attracted. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:The company is facing a comparatively high rate of ATTRITION especially in its Reliance fresh stores, so a continuous recruitment of the eligible candidate is done to meet the standards. Moreover with the growth of the economy the company is also growing as many stores are being opened all over India so recruitment of right pe rson with right skills for the right job has become very important.SCOPE OF THE STUDY:The scope of the study was extended to all the stores of Bangalore in Karnataka, India through calls and e-mails for the recruitment of customer service associates (CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s) of reliance retail. The main study was extended to the RELIANCE FRESH division at Richmond road, Bangalore. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY * To study the recruitment process involved in the organization. * To study the employees perception towards the recruitment process * To analyse the challenges faced by the organization in recruitment * To study the major reasons for high attrition rate in Reliance Fresh, Bangalore. a * To give suggestions for improvement of recruitment process in Reliance Fresh, Bangalore METHODOLOGY: The data was collected from the primary & secondary sources. Tools and techniques for collection of dataPrimary data collection Primary data was collected from HR managers , Customer Service Associates(CSAÃ¢â¬ â¢s) who are currently working at various stores of reliance fresh in Bangalore and Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s through questionnaire and telephonic interview. Secondary data collection:Secondary data was collected through HRM books, journalsÃ and internet. This data was graphically represented and analysed.The findings are summarized and suggestions have been made. SAMPLING PLANConvenience sampling was used. Sample size for this project was 100 which included 40 Customer Service Associates, 40 Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s and 20 HR managers of Reliance. PLAN OF ANALYSISSimple Percentages have been calculated on the basis of response received from questionnaire to analyse the data. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: * The sample size may be comparatively small compared to the population and there are chances that it may not represent the whole population. * The time and cost factors may affect the size of the sample. Every possibility of biased user opinion * Most of the samples was collected during the office ti me. So there will be a chance of receiving some wrong responses due to workload from the respondentsOVERVIEW OF CHAPTER SCHEMEChapter 1: IntroductionThis chapter includes an introduction to HRM, recruitment process and challenges. Chapter 2: Design of the studyThis Chapter includes a brief introduction of the subject background, statement of the problem, methodology, sampling plan, tools and techniques for collection of data, plan of analysis, limitations and an overview of chapter scheme.Chapter 3: Profile of the companyThis chapter contains a complete profile of the organization in terms of history, the nature of its business, products or services, its competitors, turnover, number of branches, staff pattern, vision , mission and values of Reliance retail with reference to research topic. Chapter 4: Analysis & interpretation of data:The chapter contains an analysis of the primary data in tune with the objectives of the study. Each question is followed by explanations and inference s.The analysis is also supported by tables and graphs. Chapter 5: Summary Of Findings, Conclusions & suggestions:This chapter provides a summary of the findings, conclusion drawn from the findings & also suggestions. It would also contain the Bibliography & AnnexureCHAPTER Ã¢â¬â 3PROFILE OF THE COMPANYThe India Retail industry is the largest among all the industries, accounting for over 10 per cent of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP and around 8 per cent of the employment.The Retail Industry in India has come forth as one of the most dynamic and fast paced industries with several players entering the market. But all of them have not yet tasted success because of the heavy initial investments that are required to break even with other companies and compete with them. The India Retail Industry is gradually inching its way towards becoming the next boom industry. The total concept and idea of shopping has undergone an attention drawing change in terms of format and consumer buying behaviou r, ushering in a revolution in shopping in India.Modern retailing has ente4red into the Retail market in India as is observed in the form of bustling shopping centres, multi-storied malls and the huge complexes that offer shopping, entertainment and food all under one roof. Retailing includes all activities involved in selling goods or services directly to final consumers for personal, non-business use. A retailer or retail store is any business enterprise whose sales volume comes primarily from retailing. Any organization selling to final consumers-whether a manufacturer, wholesaler or retailer-is doing retailing.It does not matter how the goods or services are sold (by person, mail, telephone, vending machine or internet) or services are sold (in store, on the street, or in consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s home). RELIANCE INDUSTRIES LTDThe Reliance Group, founded by Dhirubhai H. Ambani (1932-2002), is IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest private sector enterprise, with businesses in the energy and materials v alue chain. GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s annual revenues are in excess of US$ 58 billion. The flagship company, Reliance Industries Limited, is a Fortune Global 500 company and is the largest private sector company in India.Backward vertical integration has been the cornerstone of the evolution and growth of Reliance. Starting with textiles in the late seventies, Reliance pursued a strategy of backward vertical integration- in polyester, fibre intermediates, plastics, petrochemicals, petroleum refining and oil and gas exploration and production Ã¢â¬âto be fully integrated along the materials and energy value chain. The Groups activities span exploration and production of oil and gas, petroleum refining and marketing, petrochemicals (polyester, fibre intermediates, plastics and chemicals), textiles, retail, infotech and special economic zones.Reliance enjoys global leadership in its businesses, being the largest polyester yarn and fibre producer in the world and among the top five to ten produc ers in the world in major petrochemical products. Major Group Companies are Reliance Industries Limited, including its subsidiaries and Reliance Industrial Infrastructure Limited. WORDS BY THE FOUNDER- Ã¢â¬Å"Growth has no limit at Reliance, I keep revising my vision. Only when you dream it, you can do itÃ¢â¬ | | | | | * *VISION:Through sustainable measures, create value for the nation, enhance quality of life across the entire socio-economic spectrum and help spearhead India as a global leader in the domains where we operate. MISSION Create value for all stakeholders Grow through innovation Lead in good governance practices Use sustainability to drive product development and enhance operational efficiencies. Ensure energy security of the nation Postal rural prosperity VALUES: Our growth and success are based on the ten core values of care, citizenships fairness honesty, integrity, purpose fullness, respect, responsibility, safety and trust.RELIANCE BELIEVES IN GROWTH THROUGH COM MITMENTS AND THEREFORE CARES ABOUT: Quality Research & Development Health, Safety & Environment Human Resource Development Energy Conservation Corporate Citizenships ABOUT RELIANCE RETAIL LIMITED Reliance Retail, Ltd. is a subsidiary company ofÃ Reliance Industries. Founded in 2006 and based inÃ Mumbai, it is the second largest retailer in India. Its retail outlets offer foods, groceries, apparel and footwear, lifestyle and home improvement products, electronic goods, and farm implements and inputs.The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s outlets also provide vegetables, fruits, and flowers. It focuses on consumer goods, consumer durables, travel services, energy, entertainment and leisure, and health and well-being products, as well as on educational products and services. SUBSIDIARIES OF RELIANCE RETAIL LIMITED Reliance FreshÃ Ã¢â¬â Retail Outlets of fruits, Vegetables & Groceries. Reliance DigitalÃ Ã¢â¬â Consumer Electronics retail Store Reliance Jewels Ã¢â¬â Jewellery Reliance Time Out Ã¢â¬â Lifestyle store of Books, Music, Movies, Toys, Gaming, Fragrances, Stationary. Reliance Trends Ã¢â¬â Apparel and ClothingReliance Footprints Limited Reliance Brand Limited Reliance styles India Limited Reliance Home Products Limited FOUNDED 29th of September 1988 As Chembur Patalganaga Pipelines Limited(CPPL) then in March it was rename as Reliance Industrial Infrastructure. HEADQUARTER Mumbai KERY PEOPLE Mukesh Ambani( CMD) With a vision to generate inclusive growth and prosperity for farmers, vendor partners, small shopkeepers and consumers, Reliance Retail Limited (RRL), a subsidiary of RIL, was set up to lead Reliance GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s foray into organized retails.Since its inception in 2006, Reliance Retail Limited (RRL) has grown into an organization that caters to millions of customers, thousands of farmers and vendors. Based on its core growth strategy of backward integration, RRL has made rapid progress towards building an entire value chain starting from the farmers to the end consumers. Reliance Retail continued to expand presence of its value and specialty formats. During the year, Reliance Retail opened 90 new stores spanning across Ã¢â¬ËvalueÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËspecialtyÃ¢â¬â¢ segments.In-store initiatives, wider product choice and value merchandising enabled the business to achieve robust growth during this period. Its presence in the optics business is in partnership with Grand Vision. 51 new stores were added during FY:-11 taking the total presence to 100 stores across key markets in the country. The retail chain offers single brand optical products including Vision Express frames, lenses, contact lenses, sunglasses, solutions and accessories. For the very first time, consumers in India got the opportunity to experience Hamleys, which is considered to be the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most wonderful toy shop.The brand was launched in India with opening up of 2 stores during the year. Reliance Brands also announced exclusive licensing arr angement with two leading international brands: Steve Madden, a leading designer, wholesaler and retailer of fashion-forward footwear and accessories for women, men and children. Quiksilver, a leading outdoor sports lifestyle company to launch their core brands Ã¢â¬ËQuiksilverÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËRoxyÃ¢â¬â¢. Across India, reliance Retail serves over 2. 5 million customers every week. Its loyalty programme, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢Reliance OneÃ¢â¬ , has the patronage of more than 6. 75 million customers. * Dhirubhai H. Ambani Founder Chairman Reliance Group December 28, 1932 Ã¢â¬â July 6, 2002 Dhirubhai Ambani founded Reliance as a textile company and led its evolution as a global leader in the materials and energy value chain businesses. He is credited to have brought about the equity cult in India in the late seventies and is regarded as an icon for enterprise in India. He epitomized the spirit Ã¢â¬Ëdare to dream and learn to excel'. The Reliance Group is a living testimony to his indomitable will, single-minded dedication and an unrelenting commitment to his goals. * PRODUCTS & BRANDSThe Company expanded into textiles in 1975. Since its initial public offering in 1977, the Company has expanded rapidly and integrated backwards into other industry sectors, most notably the production of petrochemicals and the refining of crude oil. The Company from time to time seeks to further diversify into other industries. The Company now has operations that span from the exploration and production of oil and gas to the manufacture of petroleum products, polyester products, polyester intermediates, plastics, polymer intermediates, chemicals and synthetic textiles and fabrics.The Company's major products and brands, from oil and gas to textiles are tightly integrated and benefit from synergies across the Company. Central to the Company's operations is its vertical backward integration strategy; raw materials such as PTA, MEG, ethylene, propylene and normal paraffin that we re previously imported at a higher cost and subject to import duties are now sourced from within the Company. This has had a positive effect on the Company's operating margins and interest costs and decreased the Company's exposure to the cyclicality of markets and raw material prices.The Company believes that this strategy is also important in maintaining a domestic market leadership position in its major product lines and in providing a competitive advantage. The Company's operations can be classified into four segments namely: Petroleum Refining and Marketing business Petrochemicals business Oil and Gas Exploration ; Production business Others The Company has the largest refining capacity at any single location. The Company is: Largest producer of Polyester Fibre and Yarn 5th largest producer of Paraxylene (PX) 5th largest producer of Polypropylene (PP) th largest producer of Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA) and Mono Ethylene Glycol (MEG) * * HISTORY: * The Reliance Retail had to face various difficulties before the launch of Reliance fresh, because of the various circumstances prevailing in Orissa, West Bengal and UP, along with the news focusing on the dearth of vegetables and fruits stocks. The retail business of Reliance then minimized its exposures in vegetable and fruit business, as a result established Reliance fresh positioning a pure super market play focusing on various categories like IT, consumer durables, home FMCG and food. * The retail company of Reliance may not supply the vegetables and fruits in a few states, the Reliance Fresh decided to not race with local wholesalerÃ¢â¬â¢s party because of the political reasons as well as its incapability to maintain a healthy supply chain. * GROWTH: Reliance Industries Limited Growth is Life * The first ever Reliance Fresh store was established in Hyderabad, wherein the company, mainly focused on the fresh produced vegetables and fruits at comparatively low price along with an introduction of farm to fork theory. * This was the idea, which was anticipated by the company was to take the supply direct from the farmers and then sell straightaway to the consumers removing the middle-men off the beaten track. Reliance introduced several formats in the marketplace to cater to needs of common people, which includes Reliance Fresh, Reliance super, Reliance Footprint, Reliance Timeout, Reliance Jewels, Reliance wellness, Reliance Mart and Reliance Digital, to name a few. In addition to this, the Reliance Retail also entered into a treaty with Apple, which is a leading Information Technology company, to set up a series of Apple Specialty Outlets branded as 1Sotre, with its first ever store in Bangalore. * With an idea to produce inclusive prosperity and growth of farmers, consumers, small shopkeepers and vendor partners, Reliance Retail was set up in order to lead the foray of Reliance Group into an organized retail. A typical Reliance Fresh store is pproximately 3000-4000 square feet an d caters to a catchment area of 2Ã¢â¬â3Ã km. After launch, in a dramatic shift in its positioning and mainly due to the circumstances prevailing in UP, West Bengal and Orissa, it was mentioned recentlyÃ in news dailies that Reliance Retail is moving out of stocking fruits and vegetable. Reliance RetailÃ has decided to minimise its exposure in the fruit and vegetable business. The company may not stock fruit and vegetables in some states.Though Reliance Fresh is not exiting the fruit and vegetable business altogether, it has decided not to compete with local vendors partly due to political reasons, and partly due to its inability to create a robust supply chain. This is quite different from what the firm had originally planned. When the first Reliance Fresh store opened in Hyderabad last October not only did the company say the storeÃ¢â¬â¢s main focus would be fresh produce like fruits and vegetables at a much lower price, but also spoke at length about its Ã¢â¬Å"farm-to- forkÃ¢â¬ theory.The idea the company spoke about was to source from farmers and sell directly to the consumer, removing middlemen out of the way. Reliance Fresh, Reliance Mart, Reliance Digital, Reliance Trends, Reliance Footprint, Reliance Wellness, Reliance Jewels, Reliance Timeout and Reliance Super are various formats that Reliance has rolled out. In addition, Reliance Retail has entered into an alliance with Apple for setting up a chain of Apple Specialty Stores branded as I Store, starting with Bangalore. OPPORTUNITIES IN INDIAN ORGANIZED RETAIL SECTORThe opportunities in Indian organized retail sector are many for this sector is witnessing a boom. The Indian retail industry in amounted to US$ 200 billion in 2006, and out of this amount the amount the amount the Indian organized retail sector amounted to US$6. 4 billion. The opportunity in Indian organized retail sector can be judge from the fact that by 2010 it is expected to rise to US$23 . The Indian governments in 2005 allowed foreign direct investment (FDI) in single brand retail to 51%.These have opened up a lot of opportunities in India organized retail sector. In fact 325 departmental stores, 300 new malls and 1500 super markets are being built which shows the tremendous opportunities in organized retail sector in Indian have entered in. reliance industries limited is targeting for annual sale of US$25 billion by 2011. It is planning to invest US$6 billion in order to open 1,500 supermarkets and 1000 hyper markets. Bharti telecoms is palling a joint venture with Telco a global retail giant worth 750 million. CHALLENGES OF RETAILING IN INDIA In India the Retailing industry has a long way to go, and to become a truly flourishing industry, retailing needs to cross the following hurdles: * The first challenge facing the organized retail sector is the competition from unorganized sector. * In retail sector, Automatic approval is not allowed for foreign investment. * Taxation, which favors small ret ail businesses. * Developed supply chain and integrated IT management is absent in retail sector. * Lack of trained work force. * Low skill level for retailing management. * Intrinsic complexity of retailing- rapid price changes, threat of product obsolescence and low margins. Organized retail sector has to pay huge taxes, which is negligible for small retail business. * Cost of business operations is very high in India. RECRUITMENT PROCESS AT RELIANCE RETAIL CUSTOMER SERVICE ASSOCIATES 1. Sourcing of Candidates 2. Interview Schedule 3 . Selected Candidates are registered. 4. Offer Generation 5. Joining Formalities 6. Training REGISTRATION OF CANDIDATE R Select R MTAS Recruiter Register Candidates-All the details are filled and registration no. is generated Again RMTAS Recruiter Enter Candidate Data-Save the details Now Interview Rating Sheet is filled and saved. RMTAS Offer Process Offer- Registration No. long with Store code is inserted. Requisition No and Position No. is inserted along with Date of Joining, Location, Grade and Salary are mentioned and offer is finally generated. After this medical details are maintained. PF form along with Application Form is printed Joining Formalities On Boarding CHAPTER Ã¢â¬â 4 ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION OF DATA TABLE NO. 1: Method Adopted by Reliance to Source Candidates | No. Of Respondents (HR Managers)| Percentage| Employee Referral| 4 | 20| Campus Recruitment| 2| 10| Advertising| 1| 5|Recruitment Agencies| 2| 10| Job Portals| 1| 5| Walk-In| 1| 5| All| 9| 45| TOTAL| 20| 100| Analysis: It can be analysed from the above table that 20% of the HR managers adopted employee referral to source candidates, 10% adopted campus recruitment and recruitment agencies to source candidates and 5 % through walk Ins and advertisements and 45% adopted all methods to source candidates. CHART NO. 1: Method Adopted by Reliance to Source CandidatesInference: It can be inferred from the above chart that majority of HR managers adopted emp loyee referral, campus recruitment, advertisements and walk in to source candidates which is good for the company in terms of selecting the right candidate for the job TABLE NO. 2: Type Of Recruitment Preferred in Reliance | No. Of Respondents (HR Managers)| Percentage| Internal Source| 5| 25| External Source| 5| 25| Both| 10| 50| TOTAL| 20| 100| Analysis: 5% of respondents felt that the type of recruitment preferred in reliance is from internal sources whereas another 25% felt it is from external sources but 50% felt that reliance prefers both external and internal sources to recruit candidates. CHART NO. 2: Type Of Recruitment Preferred in Reliance Inference: It is inferred from the above chart that majority of respondents felt that reliance fresh prefers both internal sources and external sources to recruit the right candidates which is highly appreciated TABLE No. 3: Tests Used During The Process Of Recruitment | No. f Respondents (HR Managers)| Percentage| Written tests| 5| 5| Aptitude Test| 2| 10| Personal Interview| 1| 5| Psychometric Test| 2| 10| All| 10| 50| Total| 20| 100| Analysis: It can be analysed from that above table that 5% of the HR managers uses written tests and PI to judge the candidates, 10% managers told that they use aptitude and psychometric tests to judge and 50% managers told that they conduct all the mentioned tests to judge the candidates.CHART No. 3: Tests Used During The Process Of Recruitment Inference It can be inferred from the above chart that HR managers in Reliance conduct all types of tests to judge the candidates capabilities before hiring them which is beneficial for the company. TABLE NO. 4: Factors Which Influence The recruitment Process in Reliance | No. Of Respondents (HR Managers)| Percentage| Based on experience| 2| 10| Based on qualification| 5| 25| HR Policies of the company| 4| 20| All The Above| 9| 45| Total | 20| 100| Analysis:It can be analysed from the above table that 10 % of the HR managers considers exper ience as one of the factors which influences recruitment process in Reliance while, 25% and 20% managers considers qualifications and HR policies of the company respectively as the important factors and 45% of them told that is based on all the above mentioned factors. CHART NO. 4: Factors Which Influence the recruitment Process in Reliance Inference: From the above chart, it can be inferred that candidates experience, qualifications and the HR policies of the company are the various factors which influences the recruitment process of Reliance.TABLE No. 5: Technological Support For The Process Of Recruitment | No. of Respondents(HR managers)| Percentage| Telephone| 4| 20 | Video Conferencing| 2| 10| Online Support| 14| 70| Any Other| 0| 0| TOTAL| 20| 100| Analysis: It can be analysed from the above table that 70% of the HR managers use online support for the process of recruitment while 20 and 10% managers espectively told that it is also done through telephone and video conferencin g. CHART No. 5: Technological Support For The Process Of Recruitment Inference: It can be inferred from the above chart that reliance uses online support in the process of recruitment which is helpful in recruiting the large mass of people without any chaos. TABLE No. 6: Time Taken By HR Managers to Fill The gap At Store Level | No. Of Respondents (HR Managers)| Percentage| 1day| 3| 15| 1-3 days| 14 | 70 | 7 days| 3| 15| -15 days| 0| 0 | TOTAL| 20| 100| Analysis: It can be analysed from the above table that 70% of the HR managers told that gap at the store level is filled maximum within 1-3 days while 15 % of them told that it either takes 1 day or 7 days to fill the gap. CHART No. 6: Time Taken By HR Managers to Fill The gap At Store Level Inference: So it can be inferred from the above chart that HR managers hardly takes 1-3 days to fill the gap at store level which shows that their recruitment team is doing fine job. TABLE NO. 7: Back Out Percentage Of Candidates After Being Offe red No. Of Respondents| %age| 1-5%| 16| 80| 5-10%| 3| 15| 10-15%| 2| 10| 15-20%| 0| 0 | TOTAL| 20| 100| Analysis: It can be analysed from the above table that 80% of the HR managers told that back out percentage of the candidates after being offered is 1-5% and 15% told that it is 5-10% while 10% managers told that is around 10-15%. CHART NO. 7: Back Out Percentage Of Candidates After Being Offered Inference:It can be inferred from the above chart that back out percentage of the candidates are between 1-5% after being offered which should be lessen in order to retain the employees. TABLE NO. 8: Biggest Challenge Faced By the organization in the process of recruitment | No. Of Respondents (HR Managers)| Percentage| Attrition| 16| 80| Availibility of manpower| 4| 20| Skilled people| 0| 0 | Salary Issues| 0| 0| TOTAL| 20| 100|Analysis: It can be analysed from the above table that 80% of the HR managers consider attrition as the biggest challenge faced by the organization, while 20% of them told that availability of man power is also the problem that company faces. CHART NO. 8: Biggest Challenge Faced By the organization in the process of recruitment Inference: It can be inferred from the above figure, that the company is having high rate of attrition, which needs to be solved quickly in order to maintain its growth. TABLE NO. 9: Most Important Reason For Attrition | No.Of Respondents (HR Managers)| Percentage| Lack of proper Work environment| 0| 0| Remuneration is not according to skills| 9| 45| Lack of job rotations| 6| 30| No lateral or vertical growth| 0| 0| lack of motivation| 0| 0| Salary and cut throat competition| 5| 25| TOTAL| 20| 100| Analysis: It can be inferred from the above table that 45% of the managers feels remuneration is the most important reason for attrition, 30% of them told that lack of job rotation is must be the important reason for attrition while 25% of them told that salary and cut throat competition is the most important reason for att rition.CHART NO. 9: Most Important Reason For Attrition Inference: It can be inferred from above chart that according to the HR managers of reliance the remuneration along with the salary and cut throat competition are the most important reason for attrition in the company. TABLE NO. 10: Solution For attrition in the Organization | No. of Respondents(HR Managers)| Percentage| Bring the challenges in the work environment| 4| 20| Provide development and skill training| 8| 40| Tackle and solve employees issues in real time| 7| 35|Create a preference based reward system| 1| 5| TOTAL| 20| 100| Analysis: It can be analysed from the above table that 40% of the HR managers believe that providing development and skills training to the employees can be the solution for attrition, 35% of them told that tackling and solving the employees issues in real time can be the solution while 20% of the managers suggested that bringing some changes in the work environment can be helpful and 5% thinks tha t creating a performance based reward system can be the solution for attrition. CHART NO. 0: Solution For attrition in the Organization Inference: It can be inferred from the above chart that attrition can be controlled if the company provides development and skills training to the candidates and also if they start solving employees issues in real time. TABLE NO. 11: Working duration of CSAÃ¢â¬â¢S in the organization | No. Of Respondents(CSA)| Percentage| Less than 6 months| 7| 17. 5| More than 6months| 15| 37. 5| 1 year| 10| 25| More than a year| 8| 20| TOTAL| 40| 100| Analysis: It can be analysed from the above table, that 37. % of the CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s are working in the company for more than 6 months but less than a year, 25% of them told that they are working from past one year, 17. 5% of the CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s told they are working from last 6 months and only 20% of the CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s are in the organization for more than a year. CHART NO. 11: Working duration of CSAÃ¢â¬â¢S are working in the organization Inference: It can be inferred from above chart that only 20 % of the CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s are in the organization for more than a year and so it is necessary for the company to take some steps in order to retain the employees for a longer period of time.TABLE NO. 12: Information about the vacancy in the organization | No. Of Respondents(CSA)| Percentage| job Portals | 3| 7. 5| Reference| 8| 20| Leaflets| 4| 10| Advertisements| 5| 12. 5| Word Of Mouth | 20| 50| Any other Please Specify| 0| 0| TOTAL| 40| 100| Analysis: It can be analysed from the above table that 7. 5% of the CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s came to know about the vacancy in the organization from job portals, 20% of them told they came from reference, 10% told they got leaflets, 12. % came to know through advertisements and 50% of the CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s told that they came here by listening from their friends and relatives. CHART NO. 12: Information about the vacancy in the organization Inference: It can be inferred from the above that most of the people come to know through family and friends which is good but the company should do more advertisement to attract large number of people. TABLE NO. 13: Time Spent by CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s For the process of recruitment | No. Of Respondents(CSA)| Percentage| Less than 1 Day| 5| 12. 5| 1 Day| 5| 12. 5| 1-2 days| 25| 62. 5| More than 3 days| 5| 12. | TOTAL| 40| 100| Analysis: It can be analyzed from the above table that 12. 5% of the CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s told it takes less than a day to complete the whole process 12. 5 of them told that it takes 1 day and 3 days respectively and 62. 5 % of the CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s told that it takes 1-2 days in the whole process of recruitment. CHART NO. 13: Time Spent by CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s For the process of recruitment Inference: It can be inferred from the above chart that the candidates have to spend more than one whole day during the entire process of recruitment. TABLE NO. 14: Problems faced by CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s during the process of recruitment No. Of Responde nts(CSA)| Percentage| Communication| 5| 12. 5| Documents Required| 10| 25| Time Involved | 20| 50| Managers Behavior| 2| 5| Any Other Please Specify| 3| 7. 5| TOTAL| 40| 100| Analysis: It can be analysed from the above figure that 12. 5% of the CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s considers communication as one of the problem faced by them at the time of recruitment 25% of them told documents required is one of the problem , 5% told managers behaviour and 50% of the CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s considers time as the biggest problem they come through while recruitment.CHART NO. 14: Problems faced by CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s during the process of recruitment Inference: It can be inferred from the above chart that the time involved is the biggest problem faced by CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s during the process of recruitment which needs to be shorten. TABLE NO. 15: Satisfaction level of CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s with the recruitment Process | No. Of Respondents(CSA)| Percentage| Highly Satisfied| 5| 12. 5| Satisfied| 15| 37. 5| Neutral| 18| 45| Dissatisfied| 2| 5| Highly Dissatisfied| 0| 0| TOTAL| 40| 100| Analysis: It can be analysed from the above table that 12. % are highly satisfied with the recruitment process, 37. 5% respondents are satisfied, 45% is neither satisfied nor dissatisfied and 5% respondents are dissatisfied with the recruitment process in Reliance Fresh. CHART NO. 15: Satisfaction level of CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s with the recruitment Process Inference: It can be inferred from the above chart that majority of CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with the recruitment process. None of the CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s are highly dissatisfied with the process still there is scope for improvement of recruitment process in reliance fresh. TABLE NO. 6: Working duration of Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s in the organization | No. Of Respondents(Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s)| Percentage| Less than 6 months| 10| 25| More than 6 months| 18| 45| 1-2 years| 7| 17. 5| More than 2 years| 5| 12. 5| TOTAL| 40| 100| Analysis: It can be analysed from the above figure that 45% of the Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s told they have worked for more than 6 months, 17. 5% of them have worked for 1-2 years, 25% have worked for less than 6 months and 12. 5 % Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s have worked for more than 2 years. CHART NO. 16: Working duration of Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s in the organization InferenceIt can be inferred from the above chart that majority of CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s have worked for more than 6 months,Ã Ã which implies the need to change the HR policies and practices to improve employee retention. TABLE NO. 17: Main Reason Behind Leaving the Organization | No. Of Respondents (Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s)| Percentage| Higher Studies | 3| 7. 5| Got Good Opportunity Somewhere Else| 12| 30| Due to Salary| 23| 57. 5| Behavior Of The Store Manager| 2| 5| Any Other, Please specify| 0| 0| TOTAL| 40| 100| Analysis: It can be analyzed from the above that 7. % of the Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s have left the organization due to higher studies, 30% have left because they got good opportunities somewhere else, while 5% have left the store due to bad attitude of the store manager and 57. 5% of Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s told that they have left the organization because they are not satisfied with the salary they are getting. CHART NO. 17: Main Reason Behind Leaving the Organization Inference: Therefore it can be inferred from the above chart that most of the CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s have left the company due to salary. They are paid but they are not satisfied with the amount they are getting.TABLE NO. 18: Awareness Of Job Profile at the time of joining | No. Of Respondents(Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s)| Percentage| YES| 30| 75| NO| 10| 25| TOTAL| 40| 100| Analysis: It can be analyzed from the above table that 75% of the Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s were aware of the job profile at the time of joining while 25% of them are not aware before joining. CHART NO. 18: Awareness Of Job Profile at the time of joining Inference: It can be inferred from the above that all the candidates should made aware about the job profile at the time of joining. TABLE NO. 19: Wor k Environment is good or not | No.Of Respondents(Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s)| Percentage| YES| 20| 50| NO| 20| 50| TOTAL| 40| 100| Analysis: It can be analysed from the above table that 50% of the Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s found the work environment good but 50% of the Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s told that it is not that good. CHART NO. 19: Work Environment is good or not Inference: It can be inferred from the above chart that work environment is neither very good nor very bad so it can be improved and made more comfortable for working. TABLE NO. 20: Willingness to rejoin the organization | No. Of Respondents(Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s)| Percentage| NO| 35| 87. 5| YES| 5| 12. 5| | 40| 100|Analysis: It can be analyzed from the above table that 87. 5% of the Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s are not willing to rejoin the organization while only 12. 5% of them told that they can join the organization if they will get the opportunity. CHART NO. 20: Willingness to rejoin the organization Inference: It can be inferred from the above chart that most of the left employees will not join the organization again but few can join if they will get the opportunity. CHAPTER-5 FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS SUMMARY OF FINDINGS From the above data analysis and interpretation, following are the findings: To study the recruitment process involved in the organization. * Reliance follows a particular process for recruitment which is good and is according to the HR policies of the company. * Reliance adopts different processes like employee reference, walk-ins, advertisements for sourcing the candidates which is good in terms of selecting the right candidate for the vacant position. * Reliance uses both the internal and external sources to recruit the candidates. * Reliance uses aptitude tests, written tests, personal Interviews and Psychometric tests to judge the candidates before hiring them. Reliance recruits the candidates based on their experience and qualifications along with the HR policies they have adopted. * To analyse the chall enges faced by the organization in recruitment. * HR managers in reliance hardly takes 1-3 days to fill the gap at store level which shows that their recruitment team is doing good job. * It is found that back out percentage of the candidates after being offered is between 1-5% ,which should be lessen in order to retain the employees. * It is also found that the company is having high rate of attrition, which needs to be solved quickly in order to maintain its growth. It is also found that according to the HR managers the remuneration and cut throat competition are the most important reason for attrition in the company. * It is also found that attrition can be controlled if the company provides development and skills training to the candidates and also if they start solving employees issues in real time. * To study the employees perception towards the recruitment process * It is found that very few CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s are working in the organization for more than one year and so necessary measures are need to be taken in order to retain the employees for a longer period of time. It is also found that most of the employees come to know about the vacancies in the organization through their family and friends which are good but the company should do more advertisement to attract more people in large number. * It is also found that the candidates have to spend lots of time for the entire process of recruitment. * It is also found that the time involved is the biggest problem faced by CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s during the process of recruitment. * It is also found that CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s views are neutral towards the recruitment process so it can be improved and can be made more appropriate. * To study the major reasons for high attrition rate in Reliance fresh * It is found from the analysis that majority of the CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s have worked for more than six months and then left the company because they want hike in their salary. * Therefore, it can be inferred that most of the CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s hav e left the company due to salary. * It is also found that work environment is neither very good nor very bad so it can be improved. * It is also found that most of the Ex-CSAÃ¢â¬â¢s will not join the organization again but only very few can join if they will get the opportunity.CONCLUSION Human resources are the most critical assets of any organization as the organization's success lies in their hands. Recruitment is an important part of an organization's human resource planning and their competitive strength. Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees. It is through recruitment that many individuals will come to know a company and eventually decide whether they wish to work for it. High quality employees cannot be selected when better candidates do not know of job openings.From my study, it can be concluded that reliance has an effective recruitment and selection process but some improvement still can be done. The process is successful in bringing the right person to the right place as the selection process is strict and ensures that best talent is brought to the company. Reliance hires the employees based on their qualification and experience according to the HR policies which is appreciable. The company is having high rate of attrition, which needs to be solved quickly in order to maintain its growth and reduce the recruitment cost.The major reason for high attrition rate is compensation. Employees working at reliance fr
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Secularism, fundamentalism and Sectarianism as causes of war Essays Secularism, fundamentalism and Sectarianism as causes of war Essay Secularism, fundamentalism and Sectarianism as causes of war Essay Secularism is a term used to mean that certain issues or practices of religious nature should exist separately from other public or private settings.Ã Therefore, in this argument, it entails a matter of promoting secular ideas in public and private settings. In other words, it can be said that it is a way of avoiding to impose a religious belief to the citizens of a country by the government, especially in a neutral state. In fundamentalism, it is a religious movement that primarily believes and professing completely in the bible. They support reading of the bible and strictly following what has been read to the latter. The followers of this message believe that acceptance of the message means a virtue in life and to have eternal life in heaven, and rejection of the message implies leading to path that will take one to be tortured in hell. When talking about sectarianism, it is a strong devotion to a particular kind of religious sect that makes followers to prejudice other religions. This is because of the strong belief and trust in their religion being the only correct to be followed. Therefore, the issues of secularism, fundamentalism and sectarianism, have had various conflicts on different nations or among citizens of the same nation leading to war due to different believes that people hold. For instance, India and Pakistan have completely irreconcilable definition of the ideological bases of the state On the one hand, the earlier ideology of the INC carried over into the construction of the Indian state with the political system placed firmly on a constitutional framework of secularism. On the other hand, the state of Pakistan although certainly not designed to be a theocracy owned its very existence to the concept that religion can (and should) serve as the basis for political sovereignty and political identity The competing states Ã¢â¬Ëupped the anteÃ¢â¬â¢ for the two states when it came to territorial disputes, (Cashman Robinson 2007 pp 216). PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s aim was to prove that religion could be a legitimate source of state identity. For India, if BangladeshÃ¢â¬â¢s successful guest for independence from Pakistan meant prove of religious based state legitimacy, then it could have brought an interest superiority of the secular culture. (Cashman Robinson 2007 pp 216). And if Kashmir had integrated into India, it would have led to reinforcement of the triumph of secularism over religious particularism. These two religious states therefore had a strong struggle to win the inspiring of their ideologies on Kashmir and thus led to unending struggle. Therefore, by Ã¢â¬Å"permitting Pakistan to absorb Kashmir would have signaled the triumph of one ideology and the defeat of the other. By acquiescing in KashmirÃ¢â¬â¢s conquest, India would have for all practical purposes conceded PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s claim to the loyalty of all Muslims in the sub-continentÃ¢â¬ (Cashman Robinson, 2007 pp 216). These conflicts continued and in 1967, Pakistan launched war against India. These attack although were utter failure, as India had anticipated war and thus had her military ready. Ã¢â¬Å"As a result of the war, Bangladesh gained its long sought independence. A desperately poor but very proud country, Bangladesh jealously guarded its sovereignty and independence in the face of India pressure to accept the role of a quasi-client state of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s (Cashman Robinson, 2007 pp 263). There have been fights in various nations also as a result of fundamentalism ideologies. This was experienced in the war of the Iraqis and the Iranians. The Iraqis were against the fundamentalism ideas of the Iranians. There were also Ã¢â¬Å"other Arab states in the region [who] felt equally threatened by Islamic fundamentalism in IranÃ¢â¬ , (Cashman Robinson, pp 280). These threats made countries like the Saudi Arabia and Iraq to cooperate so as to counter the fundamentalism threat from Iran. This cooperation led to the invasion of Iran in 1980 by the Iraqis with the support from the Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The Iraqi government was opposed to the ShiÃ¢â¬â¢a Muslims in Iran and this was the cause for the conflictual interaction between the two states. The Iraq government used several ways of cracking down the ShiÃ¢â¬â¢a political activities in Iran. For instance, there was the crack down of the ShiÃ¢â¬â¢a leaders and the other and the dissident members of al Daawa. On the other hand the ShiÃ¢â¬â¢a Masses were offered with economic enticement and development assistance so as they can change their religious stand. Finally, war broke out between Iran and Iraq. Iraq spearheaded her war against Iran by destroying the air capabilities of Iran.Ã Iraq bombed 10 airfields of Iran, while Iran was only able to respond with two divisions of its own, (Cashman Robinson, 2007 pp 291). Religions identity has a big influence on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It gives the believers a sense of belonging to a community, defining a pattern of belief and morals. These religious identities can at a time cause problems. It can be used for justifying sectarianism and in the extreme violence and ethnic cleansings (Crawford Rositter, 2006 pp 193). England is one country that experienced conflict arising due to those who believe in catholic ideologies, Protestants and Dissenters. According to Marshal (2006), Hostility towards protestant dissenters was especially strong against Baptists, repeatedly excoriated as Anabaptists and against Quakers who were seen as having turned the world upside down in the revolution by their challenges to hierarchies in family church and state by refusal of oaths, address to others as Ã¢â¬ËtheeÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËthouÃ¢â¬â¢, allowance of preaching against luxury and corruptionÃ¢â¬ , (Pp 95). There were laws that were passed to deal with non conformity which saw many dissenters being fined, imprisoned and become financially ruined. The laws also led to many Protestants and dissenters being killed for their faith. In the end, it led to rebellious acts by the Protestants, which erupted to civil wars and revolutions against the catholic rule. For instance, in the seventh century, the Protestants took up arms against their ruler in significant part on the basis of a perceived religious duty to reform the religion of the church of England from its allegedly Ã¢â¬ËhereticalÃ¢â¬â¢ tendencies to Ã¢â¬ËpoperyÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËArminismÃ¢â¬â¢ leading to a teeming liberty of protestant sectarianism and execution of their king, Charles IÃ¢â¬ (Marshal, 2006 pp266). Rulers of other nations also who become protestants were excommunicated by the pope, deported and assassinated. Therefore, looking at secularism, fundamentalism and sectarianism, it is neither possible nor easy to say that the war will end or is nearly ending. This is because there are still many fights taken place all over the world, despite the enlightenment in the current society. For instance, the current fundamentalism of the Muslim religion is being felt all over the world. The war in Iraq, Lebanon, India and parts of Africa are a clear sign of the unending war. The current war among different human communities is not only for materialistic gain as happened with the World War I II and the cold war. But it is a war that represents spiritual self-defeat of man .As Horowitz (2007) argues, Ã¢â¬Å"as long as Christian values remain in the shadows of scientific advance, peace will be impossible to reach, secularism is the ultimate heresy the root cause of warÃ¢â¬ , (pp28). It has also been argued that the intervention of the war that has been going in countries like Iraq by the united state has due to taking advantage of the historic sectarian differences. Taras (2006) argued that Ã¢â¬Å"western intervention in Yugoslavia, Afghanistan and Iraq were intervention in states with pre existing ethnic and sectarian cleavagesÃ¢â¬ , (Para. 3). Also the unending war is culminated by the various stands of different groups of fundamentalists. For instance, as Ã¢â¬Å"most self described Christian fundamentalists are united by their agreement on the nine principles that first defined the movement, Sunni and ShiÃ¢â¬â¢a fundamentalist have shared few theological or political principlesÃ¢â¬ , (Levine 2007, Para 9). Levine still explains that Ã¢â¬Å"al- QaedaÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership seeks to unite all Muslims and establish a government, which follow the rule of Caliphs The only way to establish the caliphate is by forceÃ¢â¬ , (Para 10). This means that the al Ã¢â ¬âQaeda has to overthrow all the Muslim governments and abolish the state boundaries. In such a case, there shall never be end to these wars, as each group will be standing its ground. nbsp;
Sunday, October 20, 2019
How to Make Real Snow at Home If you want to see or play in snow, but Mother Nature wont cooperate, you can take matters into your own hands and make snow yourself. This is the homemade version of real water ice snow, just like the snow that falls from the sky. What You Need You need the same things found in nature: water and cold temperature. You turn the water into snow by dispersing it into particles small enough to freeze in the cold air. WaterPressure nozzle There is a handy snowmaking weather tool that will tell you whether you have the proper conditions for making snow. In some climates, the only way youll be able to make snow is if you chill a room indoors (or you can make fake snow), but much of the world can make real snow at least a few days out of the year. Pressure Nozzle You have several options: Pressure washer (own or rent, use a fine mist nozzle or use a nozzle specially designed for producing snow)Snow cannon (not affordable to buy, but can be rented)Garden hose with a snow attachment (makes less snow per hour than the pressure washer or snow cannon, but still fun) Note: Simply using a mister attached to a garden hose isnt likely to work unless the temperature is very cold. The mist particles may not be small enough or far enough apart to turn water into ice. Fine Mist All you need to do is spray a fine mist of water into the air so it cools down enough to freeze into water ice or snow. Theres a technique to this. Spray at AngleÃ Youll get much better results if you point your water spray upward at a 45-degree angle rather than straight up. The amount of air you get mixed in with the water makes a difference, so you want to maximize this. Water Cold as Possible You also want the water to be as cold as possible, so water from a cold stream will work better than, say, heated water from your home. Impurities Are Good The water from a stream or river also has the advantage of containing impurities which can act as nucleation sites to provide a surface on which snow crystals can grow. Add a Nucleating Agent Its also possible to add what is called a nucleating agent to your water which will accomplish the same purpose, essentially allowing you to produce snow at slightly warmer temperatures. The nucleating agent typically is a non-toxic polymer. Snow machines for ski resorts can use this effect to make snow even if the temperature is above freezing. If your water supply naturally contains a bit of sand, this can help you make snow at slightly warmer temperatures than if you were using pure water. You need only a few hours of cold to make a lot of snow. The snow will last longer if the temperature stays cold, but it will take a while to melt even if it warms up. Use Boiling Water If the temperature outdoors is extremely cold, its actually easier to make snow using boiling hot water than cold water. This technique works reliably only if the temperature is at least 25 degrees below zero Fahrenheit (below -32 Ã °C). To do this, throw a pan of freshly boiled water into the air. Easy and Spectacular It seems counter-intuitive that boiling water would readily turn to snow. How does it work? Boiling water has a high vapor pressure. The water is very close to making the transition between a liquid and a gas. Throwing the boiling water into the air offers the molecules a lot of surface area exposed to freezing temperatures. The transition is easy and spectacular. Protect Hands and Face While its likely anyone performing this process would be bundled up against the extreme cold, take care to protect your hands and face from the boiling water. Sloshing a pan of boiling water onto skin by accident can cause a burn. The cold weather numbs skin, so theres an increased risk of getting a burn and not noticing it right away. Similarly, at such a cold temperature, there is a significant risk of frostbite to exposed skin.
Saturday, October 19, 2019
There are certain characteristic found in some people. It is just that, they put them in a position where people looked up to as a leader. People often say Ã¢â¬Ë He or she is a born leaderÃ¢â¬â¢. Whether in fact a person is born a leader or develop skills and abilities to become a good leader is open for debate. There are some clear characteristics that are found in good leaders. These qualities can be developed and naturally is the part of their personality. Firstly, a good leader must have a positive attitude. This quality is a required not just for a leader but everybody. However, this is specially necessary for a leader. A leader needs to be positive and motivate his team, in times that are hard and times that are brutal. When times are tough and his team is absolutely down, when times are really frustrating, a leader is the who carries his team and his organization forward and that is what a leader needs to do look at the bright side of each and everything. Besides a good leader must be a good listener. This is because a good leader needs to listen to her followers. She needs to get feedback on a regular basis, open her eyes and ears and keep listening. Now a word of caution. Listening does not mean to blindly follow and accept everything that is said and shown. What goes hand in hand is listening. This also helps her followers to express theirs feeling or even to speak their rights. The quality which a leader should possess is intelligence and alertness. A leader has to use his brain every time and also has to remainÃ Ã alert withÃ eyes and ears open otherwise he could easily be carried by any fraud or enemy. Many a times we see such situations around us, where a person in trouble or problem doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t hesitate in blaming and embarrassing even his closest friend to save himself, and also does not bother about his friends at all because the person has to get rid of his problems anyhow. So, he just thinks about himself and his life,Ã the life of other does not matter to him much. Some people have a misconception that only those people who are physically strong can become good leaders, but this is not the fact. A leader may not be physically strong but he needs to be mentally strong and firm in decisions. For example, Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of the Nation was the greatest leader but he was active and had a firm desire to serve the Nation. He had the power of organizing and uniting people and attracting people towards him by his speeches. This is the best quality of a leader which he had in him. We can also say that, a person who can satisfy the basic psychological needs of his followers can also be an effective leader. A leader must have average character . There are no perfect people, but for a leader to be considered good, they must have a character that is unquestioned within the organization. Leadership always draws criticism from someone, so a leader may not be able to get everyone to believe in him or her, but the people who know the leader best should trust the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s character. In a nutshell, a good leader must be faithful to his group members and activities. This in turn, will result in an atmosphere of assurance among the followers. Having faith in self abilities and the world around him , the leader gains inspiration and also inspires others in the process.